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Tiie Past ai2d Present of the 
Parish Church of Folkestone . 

Matthew Woodard 


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-^ 5\^^.i2.^H' 

OCT 13 1916 

syescRiPTiON of 1916 

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In this little book I have endeavoured to meet a very often 
expressed wish for information respecting the Parish Church of 
Folkestone. Especially have I been appealed to for some 
descriptive Guide to its present ornate interior. In responding 
to this demand, I have found it impossible to pass unnoticed 
some of the interesting associations which connect this Church 
with the history of the past ; and especially with the Mission of 
Augustine and the reconversion of this county of Kent. 

In the midst of the many and pressing claims upon my time as 
a parish priest, I have found it quite impossible to do justice to 
such an undertaking, and I feel that I am sending forth, this 
** Past and Present of the Parish Church of Folkestone," 
with many imperfections and shortcomings. 

As regards this Church's early history, much, if not all the 
ground which I have gone over, has been traversed before by 
such well-known antiquarians as Canon Jenkins, the Rector of 
Lyminge, and Canon Scott Robertson, the Honorary Secretary 
of the Kent Archaeological Society ; and to them I must express 
my sincere gratitude for the ready kindness with which they have 
placed the results of their learned researches at my disposal. 

I am also indebted to my fellow-townsman, Mr. Henry Stock, 
for some information which I could not otherwise have easily 

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As to the latter portion of the book, in which the artistic work 
in the Church is described with some little minuteness, I have 
not required any assistance, seeing that all the changes that have 
been wrought, both in the fabric itself and its internal ornamen- 
tation, have been effected during my long ministry of upwards of 
forty-one years. 

It has been my happiness during that time- to see my parish, 
once an obscure little fishing town, develop into an attractive and 
flourishing health-resort. There has been steady but continual 
progress as regards its material prosperity; and it would have 
been no slight reproach to all of us, both priest and people, had 
this ancient House of the. Lord alone remained uncared for. 

The principle upon which the restoration, and afterwards the 
adornment of the Church proceeded has been two-fold. First, it 
was sought to make it more worthy of Him to whose honour 
and glory it was erected some seven and a half centuries ago. 
And secondly, in the artistic work introduced from time to time, 
the endeavour has been to make the Church a silent, yet eloquent 
teacher of those great truths of our religion upon which our 
eternal welfare depends. 

May God graciously accept and bless the labours and the 
offerings of those who nave loved the habitation of His House, and 
have, by their gifts, striven to make it ** exceedingly magnifical " ; 
and may He own, in His restored and beautified Sanctuary, our 
humble endeavours to make some reparation for the neglect of 
past generations. 

M. W. 

The Vicarage^ Folkestone. 

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TS^SihU of Contenties. 




(a.D. 630 TO 1095). 

Life of St. Eanswythe — Destruction of Church and Priory by the 
Danes — Montalambert's Account of St. Eanswythe— Goscelinus — 
First Norman Church... ... ... ... ... 3 


CHURCH OF SS, MARY AND EANSWYTHE (a.d. 1095 to 1484). 

Foundation of the present Church— Its Architecture — Recumbent 
Knight — Various Bequests— Altars— Lights — Chancel Aisles ... 16 



Names and Dates— Thomas Bayns— Letter of Lord Clinton— 
Letter of the King's Mothers-Suppression of the Priory ... 29 

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THE REFORMATION PERIOD (a.d. 1535 to 1640). 

Rejection of Roman Domination— Schism of Romanists— Arch- 
bishop Parker— Queen Elizabeth visits Folkestone— Petition to 
King Charles I. ... ... ... ... ... 33 


THE GREAT REBELLION (a.d. 1640 to 1662). 

Results of Puritan Ascendancy— Demolition of Religious Art in 
the Folkestone Church— Choice of Mayor at Churchyard Cross— 
Restoration of Cross proposed— Chimney-Money— Rebecca Rogers' 
Tomb ... ... ... ... ... ... 40 

THE PARISH REGISTERS (a.d. 1635 to 1694). 

Peter Rogers— Petition from the Inhabitants to the Long Parlia- 
ment—Registrar appointed — Baptisms cease— Marriages by the 
Mayor and Jurates— Puritan Ministers put into the Living — 
Collections by Briefs— Appropriation of a Seat — Great Storm of 1705 44 

CHURCH RESTORATION (a.d. 1856 to 1892). 

Obstacles to be overcome— Enlargement of the Church— Chancel 
restored — Re-building of Transepts-^Chancel Aisle — West end 
re-built— Harvey Memorial Window— New South Aisle added to 
the Nave — Chancel lined with Alabaster Arcading and Mosaics ... 57 

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The North West Porch 

The Holy Rood 

The Fall of Man and his Expulsion from Paradise (Windows) 

Picture of the Annunciation 

The Jesse Tree 

The Tower... 

The Great Chancel ... 

The East Windows ... 

St. Eanswythe's Reliquary 

Brass to the Mother of Harvey ... 

Inscriptions on Tombstones in the Church ... 

Remains of Clerestory Windows .. 

St. Eanswythe*s Chapel and Windows 

Picture of St. Eanswythe Ministering to the Poor 

The Herdson Monument 

The Ladye Chapel 

The Matthew Window 

The Stations of the Cross 

The Sacraments 

Baptismal Window ... 

The Confirmation Window 

The Communion Window 

The Children's Window 










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Discovery of Old Font ... ... ... ... 91 

The Gregory Window... ... ... ... ... 92 

The Augustine Window ... ... ... ... 93 

King Ethelbert and St. Augustine ... ... ... 94 

St. Augustine and the Cehic Bishops ... ... ... 97 

The Five Archbishops ... ... ... ... 100 

Theodorus... ... ... ... ... ... 100 

Ethelred ... ... ... ... ... ... 101 

St. Anselm... ... ... ... ... . ... 103 

St. Thomas ^ Becket ... ... ... ... ... 105 

Archbishop Laud ... ... ... ... ... 109 

The Harvey Window ... ... ... ... ... 115 

The Spandrels and Roof of the Nave ... ... ... 117 

The Altar Frontal ... ... ... ... ... 119 

The Old Bells ... ... ... ... ... 120 

The New Bells ... ... ... ... ... 121 

Dates of the Foundation, etc., of the Church and Monastery ... 123 

List of the Vicars of Folkestone... ... ... ... 125 

Gifts to the Church ... ... ... ... ... 126 

List of Subscribers ... ... ... ... ... 133 

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The Exterior of the Church, as it is ... ... Frontispiece 

The Mayor's Seal, containing the Figure of St. Eanswythe ... 9 

The Recumbent Knight in the Chancel ... ... ... 19 

Stone Lid of a CoflSn of one of the Priors (in the Belfry) ... 32 

Exterior of the Church in 1 85 1 ... ... ... facing page 5$ 

Exterior of the Church after the First Enlargement .. facing page 57 
West End as it now is, shewing Harvey Window and Porch ... 59 

Interior of the Church in 1851 ... ... ... facing page 63 

Interior of the Church as it now is ... ... facing page 64 

The Sanctuary, with Altar vested with the New Frontal facing page 69 
The Reliquary of St. Eanswythe... ... ... ... 70 

The Lady e Chapel ... ... ... ... facing page yS 

The above are taken from Photographs by Mr, Braund. 

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^it0t (l£f)Utct) attXf 0nnntvvi in 

(A.D. 630 TO 1095.) 

||NE special subject of interest attaching to 
Folkestone Parish Church is suggested by its 
dedication to St. Mary and St. Eanswythe. 
The name of the latter Saint connects it with the great 
work accomplished by Augustine at the latter part of the 
sixth, and during the earlier part of the seventh centuries. 
Eanswide or Eanswith, or, to adopt the spelling found in 
the Parish Register Book of 1699, "Eanswythe," was the 
daughter of Eadbald King of Kent, whose father Ethel- 
bert had been converted to Christianity through the 
influence of St. Augustine. 

Great was the disappointment of the little Christian 
community when Ethelbert died, a.d. 616, and was 
succeeded by his son Eadbald, still a heathen, whose 
influence was soon exerted in violent opposition to the 
religion of his father. Happily, through the instrumentality 

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4 dTtr^t C^mcl) axiti fiiinmvp in dToIfte^tone. 

of Laurentius, Augustine's, successor in the See of Can- 
terbury, Eadbald was brought into the fold of Christ and 
became a devoted servant of God, seeking to advance the 
interests of the religion which he had once sought to 
destroy. At his bidding, Churches rose up here and there 
in Kent. The venerable Church of St. Mary, which 
crowns the Dover cliff within the precincts of the Castle, 
and which dates back to Roman times, was by him 
restored to its high purpose. But our special interest in 
this King centres in the fact that he built the first Church 
in Folkestone, dedicated it to St. Peter and St. Paul, and 
gave it to his daughter Eanswythe, who became Abbess 
of a religious community of Sisters, a.d. 630. Eadbald 
died A.D. 640, having not only founded a Monastery for 
his daughter at Folkestone, but also one at Dover, and 
another at Lyminge for his sister Ethelburga, the only 
daughter of King Ethelbert and Queen Bertha, and the 
widowed Queen, who after the death of her husband 
Edwin, King of Northumbria, returned, Bede tells us, * 
" to Kent by sea, and was received with great honour by 
Honorius the Archbishop, and King Eadbald her brother." 
The foundations of the old Saxon Church at Lyminge 
are exposed to view, and a stone, duly inscribed, marks 
the spot where St. Ethelburga was buried. 

Folkestone has the celebrity of being the seat of the 
first Nunnery ever founded in England ; that of Lyminge, 
of which St. Ethelburga was Abbess, succeeding it in 
three years. 
♦ See a Sketch of the Life of Queen Ethelburga by the Rev. Canon Jenkins. 

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It will not be out of place in a work like this to give 
some account of the life of the patron Saint of Folkestone, 
whose name is associated with that of the Blessed Virgin 
in the dedication of the Parish Church,* more especially 
since a Reliquary containing her remains, of which more 
will be said hereafter, was discovered some few years ago 
in the North wall of the Sanctuary, and is now carefully 
preserved in an alabaster shrine specially prepared for the 
purpose of receiving it. 

The following ** Anonymous Life of St. Eanswith " has 
been translated from Capgrave's Nova Legenda Angliae, 
in the British Museum : — 

*• Ethelbert, King of Kent, who was converted to the faith by 
Saint Augustine ihe Bishop, begat Edbald and Ethelburgu the 
virgin, whom her father Ethelbert gave as wife to Edwin, King 
of the Northumbrians, as is more clearly set forth in the Life 
of that Saint and King which follows. Edbald, however, begat 
by Emma, daughter of the King of the Franks, Ermured and 
Ercombert and a daughter Eanswida, who from infancy renounc- 
ing worldly pomps, studied to serve God, trod under foot all the 
treasures of the world, and having embraced the holy doctrine 
with all her might, longed with constant desire for the life of the 
heavenly kingdom, and meditated submitting herself to the rule 
of the life of holiness. For the convenience of this observance 
she selected a suitable place, remote and unfrequented, called 
Folkestone, where also her father Edbald built a Church in honour 
of Saint Peter the Apostle. 

♦ The Church of the Parish of Brenzett in Romney Marsh is the only 
other Church dedicated to St. Eanswythe. 

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** Therefore, on that part of the coast which is said to be the 
more remote from the peasantry, she founded a Church, suitable 
for her purpose, with the offices necessary for such profession, for 
herself and her companions, and distant from high-water mark 
by the breadth of seven (Roman) acres, that is, by twenty-eight 
perches. This has now completely disappeared: for the land 
having been gradually eaten away by the sea, after a long period 
it fell down and the seashore swallowed up the cemetery. Here 
then, wearing the regular dress and leading a life of virgin 
chastity, the handmaid of God, devoted to His service day 
and night, reached her blessed end on the thirty-first of 
August. Her remains, when the ruin of the Church itself was 
imminent, were transferred to the neighbouring Church of 
St. Peter. 

" Now when the blessed virgin Eanswith had reached the age 
for matrimony, her father by constant admonition and frequent 
entreaties invited the virgin to marry. But she, inspired by the 
Holy Spirit, and with unchangeable firmness of mind, answered 
him in these words : * Dearest Father, if you are able to bring to 
my virginity an unending duration of delight, a perpetual enjoy- 
ment of marriage, an immortal spouse, and infinite joy in offspring, 
I will gladly acquiesce in your design. But if you are thinking 
of bringing me friendship mingled with hate, sterile nuptials, a 
transitory enjoyment of them, a mortal husband, the distressing 
loss of children and the corruption of everything that appertains 
to virginity, then even the counsel of my father, unless he desires 
to throw off a father's qualities, will advise adherence to the 
better part. 

"*For Mary chose that good part which shall not be taken 
away from her. Therefore, since the laws of death hold absolute 
sway in human affairs, I long for the embraces of a heavenly and 

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dfixit aCfym^ anl]i finnmvp tn JToIitedtone. 7 

immortal Spouse : for Him I reserve the flower of my virginity : 
for when loving Him I shall be chaste, when touching Him I 
shall be pure, when accepting Him I shall be a virgin still. In 
order to worship this so noble Spouse, I beg, O father, to be 
allowed to build an Oratory for myself.' Moved therefore, by the 
virgin's prayers, her father Edbald began to build an Oratory for 
her. While it was being built the King of the Northumbrians, a 
man of noble lineage, sought the blessed virgin to be his wife, and 
her father addressed her caressingly, and extolled a marriage with 
such an illustrious husband. 

'' Now it happened that among the beams of wood brought for 
the work of the Oratory there was one which was three feet 
shorter than the rest, and on account of its shortness was con- 
sidered useless for the work. The King of the Northumbrians 
having been brought thither with a large following, she spoke to 
her father in these words : * This noble king seeks me, the hand- 
maid of Christ, for his partner and asks me to be his wife. O how 
foolish an exchange, how odious a folly, how intolerable a loss, if 
I take earthly things instead of heavenly, transitory things instead 
of things eternal. Nevertheless I will accept this man as my 
husband, though he is mortal, though he is earthly, if by the 
power of his God he is able, by praying, to lengthen this beam as 
much as is required. But if not, he is to leave me intact* The 
king gladly accepted the condition, hoping that by the power of 
his gods he would easily accomplish this, but not one of his gods 
was able to do it, however much invoked. For he approached 
where the end of the beam was raised up, and poured forth in 
vain yet more abundant prayers to his gods, and in the sight of 
all present he went away filled with shame. 

" The holy virgin, then, rejoicing in her mind, exclaimed that 
by the manifestation of heaven she was freed from the unlawful 

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8 Jfivit CI)uifI) antt ipunnrrp in JfolktHtont. 

union. And approaching the beam, she made a prayer, and the 
part opposite to her raised itself up and lengthened itself until 
it was equal to, or greater than, the rest in length, and that which 
previously could by no means be fitted to the rest was then con- 
sidered even more suitable for the work. Now her Oratory being 
on the rocks overhanging the sea, was without a supply of fresh 
water. And as the water had to be brought from a long distance 
by the labour of the servants, she pitied their toil and their want 
of water, and went to a fountain distant one mile or more, situated 
in the village called S>yeeton. 

*• Carrying a stick before her she drew, as it were by the sound 
of her voice, a stream from the depths to the heights, over cliffs 
and rocky summits, to her Oratory, and it gave incessantly abun- 
dant drink for men and horses; thus by the prayers of this holy 
virgin, water ascended, contrary to its very nature, and, what is 
still more wonderful, it passed through another stream of water 
on its way, and yet continued its course uncontaminated and un- 
mingled. It is a marvellous thing that by the prayers of this 
virgin, water, which from the beginning of the world the Creator 
ordained to seek the lowest level, followed His handmaid even 
contrary to nature, and, forgetting its Lord in nature, the Lord's 
handmaid ordered it to follow her, and it hearkened and obeyed 
her comniiands. 

" It happened also that her fields were devastated by various 
kinds of birds, and the produce was consumed, and thus the work 
of the labourers was despoiled. Upon the birds she placed an 
interdict that they should never again settle upon her fields. And 
so it has been. Also the holy virgin, by her merits, gave sight to 
a woman afflicted with blindness, she restored a demoniac to his 
right mind, and made many others joyful in their restoration to 
health from various diseases." 

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JFivit CI)urc]^ anti finnntvv tn dToI&rsitone. 9 

It is, of course, quite beside the aim of this work 
to enter upon the question as to how far such miracles as 
those attributed to St. Eanswythe and other of the earlier 
Saints, are worthy of credit. It is sufficient for our 
purpose to be assured that she led a life of peculiar self- 
sacrifice and sanctity, renouncing the attractions and 
fascinations of a court and a queenly crown, in order to 
devote herself to the care of Christ's sick and suffering 
ones. That she was for many centuries held in very high 
repute in Folkestone there can be no doubt, and she is 
still remembered as Folkestone's Patron Saint, and 
appears on the ancient Seal of the Mayor, still in use, 
habited as an Abbess, crowned, and holding a pastoral 
staff; with a fish on either side of her. 

The date of the translation of her Reliquary to the 
present Church was September 12th, on which day the 
Dedication Festival of the Church has, for some years 
past, been annually observed. 

From the position in the Sanctuary in which her 

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lo Jfixat as^xivcl) antf i^unner^ in jTolitei^tone. 

Reliquary was found, and from its surroundings, we may 
infer that pilgrimages were once made to Folkestone in 
her honour. 

Thomas Philpott in his " Villare Cantianum, or Kent 
Surveyed," says : — 

"The Manor of Folkestone was given to the Nunnery by 
Eadbald King of Kent, which it seems was of that repute in those 
times that Bans wide, his daughter, was there veiled a nun under 
the rule of St. Benedict, and Ermured and Ercombert his sons, 
changed their hopes of a crown into that of one more celestial, 
and folded up all 1;heir earthly glories into a monastic cowl, which 
they assumed at this place, under the discipline of St Benedict 
But this cloister was some years after, partly by the fury of the 
Danes and partly by the impressions of the sea, reduced into a 
heap of ruins, so that in the reign of William the Conqueror, 
William de Muneville laid the foundations of a new Priory in 
another place of the town, which was much augmented afterwards 
by William de Averenches, who had married his only daughter. 

"The Nunnery being much defaced was re-edified and re- 
established in the reign of Henry III. by John de Claiton and 
John de Segrave, and was again stored with Nuns who were to 
live, as formerly, under the rule of St. Bennet, and it was dedicated 
to St. Peter and St. Eanswith ; but when it was found in the 
second year of Henry V. (1415) that it related by foreign depend- 
ence to the Abbey of Lolley in Normandy, it was, by that prudent 
and cautious monarch, suppressed." 

This opens up the enquiry as to how long the Nunnery 
of St. Eanswythe continued to exist, and what ultimately 
became of it. It also further suggests the enquiry as to 

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Jfitit (S^urclb Aii^ ^unner^ tn ;foVktitont. ii 

how the present Parish Church became possessed of her 

Kilburn, in his Survey of Kent, says : — 

" The pagans afterwards much ruinated this Nunnery, and the 
sea beginning to swallow up the remains, as afterwards it totally 
did, John Segrave and Juliana his wife, daughter and heir of 
John de Sandwich, Lord of this town, and John, Lord Clinton, 
in the time of King Henry III. built a Priory here, and dedicated 
the same to the honour of St. Peter and St. Eanswith, and 
translated her Reliques to this Priory." 

It is generally supposed that both the original Monastery 
of St. Eanswythe and the Church attached to it were 
carried away by the encroachments of the sea. Monta- 
lambert in his Moines d'occident, says : — * 

" Eanswida ^lev^e par les missionnaires Romains de Canterbury 
regut de leur main le voile des fiancees de Dieu. Elle se 
signala par la fondation d'un monast^re, qu'elle cons^cra en vraie 
Romaine, k Saint Pierre, et dont elle fut la sup6neure, k Folke- 
stone, au bord de ces blanches falaises surmont^es de verdoyants 
p^turages, qui attirent le premier regard des innombrables voyageurs 
que les nefs rapides de nos jours d^posent en ce lieu sur la plage 
d' Albion. La l^gende s'est donn^ beau jeu k Toccasion de cette 
jeune et sainte descendante de Hengist et deClovis; elleacombl^ 
les lacunes de sa biographie authentique par divers traits qui nous 
initient k Tid^e que se faisaient les Anglo-Saxons de la puissance 
surnaturelle dont la vocation monastique investissait les filles de 
race souveraine. 

♦Vol. v., pp. 274-276. 

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12 iTirjJt ®f)urclb <»"^ i&unnery t'li iToIfee^toiu. 

**Elle mourut, jeune encore en 640. Son abbaye construite 
trop prfes de la mer et sur un rocher qui surplombait, fut engloutie 
par les flots ; mais la m^moire de cette fille des conqu^rants, 
conquise par I'amour de Dieu et du prochain, surv^cut longtemps 
dans les prieres des fidfeles.* Plus de six cents ans aprfes sa mort, 
sous les Plantagenets, un puissant baron Anglo-Normand renouvela 
la fondation b^n^dictine de la princesse Anglo-Saxonne, et on 
cons^cra T^glise h St. Pierre et h Sainte Eanswida.f 

"The same idea is expressed in the short account given in 
Mign^ Diet. Hagiographique : — * Eadbald fonda pour elle (Eans- 
withe) en 630, un monastfere prfes de Folkestone dont elle eut le 
gouvernement, et qui fut le premier monaslfere de religieuses en 

"*Elle mourut le 31 Aout, mais on ignore dans quelle ann^e 
du viie. sifecle. La mer ayant englouti dans la suite une partie du 
monastfere, les religieuses allferent s*^tablir k Folkestone m^me, 
emportant avec elles les reliques de leur fondatrice, qui furent 
d^pos^es dans T^glise qu'Eadbald avait fait construire en Thonneur 
de St. Pierre et qui porta depuis le nom de Sainte Eanswithe. 
(12. Septembre.y" 

I subjoin a translation of the above — 

I "Eanswida educated by the Roman Missionaries of Canter- 
bury, received from their hand the veil of the betrothed of God. 
She distinguished herself by the foundation of a Monastery, 
which she dedicated, in a true Roman fashion, to St. Peter, and of 
which she was Superior at Folkestone, on the banks of those white 

* Les Bollandistes ont public un fragment de son oflfice. 

t Le Baron s'appelait Jean de Segrave et sa femme Juliana de Sandwich. 

I Moines d'occident. Tom. V. pp. 274. Ed. 1878. 

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dTtrsjt Cburc]^ anH fixmmvp in dToIiutftone. 13 

cliffs crowned at the top by green pastures, which attract the first 
glance of the innumerable travellers, brought by the rapid 
navigation of our days to the shores of Albion. 

** The legend has given scope to imagination concerning this 
young and saintly princess, a descendant of Hengist and Clovis. 
It has filled in the gaps of her authentic biography with various 
features, which initiate us into the idea which the Anglo- 
Saxons had of the supernatural power given to the daughters 
of sovereigns who had embraced the monastic vocation. 

" Eanswida died quite young, in 640. Her abbey, built too 
near the sea and on a projecting rock, was engulfed by the waves ; 
but the memory of this daughter of the conquerors, herself con- 
quered by the love of God and her neighbours, survived for a long 
time in the prayers of the faithful.* 

" More than six hundred years after her death, under the 
Plantaganets, a powerful Anglo-Norman baron,t renewed the 
Benedictine foundation of the Anglo-Saxon princess, and con- 
secrated the Church to St. Peter and St. Eanswida." 

And again — 

" Eadbald founded for Eanswida, in 630, a Monastery near 
Folkestone, which she governed. It was the first Monastery of 
Nuns in England. 

" She died on the 31st of August, but it is not known in which 
year of the seventh century. 

"The sea having later on engulfed a part of the Monastery^ 
the Nuns established themselves at Folkestone, carrying with 
them their foundress* relics, which had been deposited in the 

♦ The Bollandistes have published a fragment of her prayers, 
t The Baron's name was Jean de Segrave, and his wife Juliana de Sandwich. 

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14 ;ftrKt (!Ct)urdb anH ^unnrrD tn ;fbIbeKtone. 

Church built by Eadbald in honour of St. Peter, and since this time 
this Church has been named St. Eanswy the." ( 1 2th of September.) 

Both Philpott and Montalambert omit to mention the 
restoration of the Church and Monastery by Athelstan, 
regarding which we have documentary evidence. The 
Charter of Athelstan a.d. 927 sets forth as follows : — 

"Pro reverentia et honore archisacerdotis Wlfelmi concedo 
Ecclesiae Christi in Dorobernia, etc., terram juris mei in Canti^ 
sitam supra mare, nomine Folcustan, ubi quondam fuit monas- 
terium et abbatia Sanctarum Virginum, ubi etiam sepulta est 
sancta Eanswida. 

" Qua propter ego ^thelstanus, monarchus totius Britanniae illo loco et de serviiio Christi et sanctae Mariae 
matris ejus quod olim in eodem loco — fieri solebat, antequam 
Pagani destruxissent locum ilium, dedi eundem locum ecclesiae 
Christi, ut servitium quod ibi fieri solebat restituatur." 

" For the reverence and honour of the Archpriest Wulfhelm, I 
grant to the Church of Christ in Canterbury, the land belonging 
to me in Kent, situated on the sea, called Folcestan, where 
formerly there was a monastery and convent of holy virgins, 
where also St. Eanswida was buried. Wherefore I, -^thelstane, 
monarch of all Britain, thought upon that place and on the service 
of Christ and of St. Mary His Mother which of old was carried 
on in the same place before it was destroyed by the Pagans, and 
have given it to the Church of Christ in order that the service 
which used to be performed there may be restored." 

From this Charter it would appear that St. Eanswythe's 
Convent and Church were destroyed by the Danes, that 

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dTtrKt Cfiutcf) aiiDi iBunnnp in ^foQtentone. 15 

the site of the Church and Monastery belonged to the 
King, and that Athelstan determined to restore them, 
A.D. 927. And further, that he carried out his plans in 
order that the worship of God might be restored in 
Folkestone. We also gather from Goscelinus, the Monk 
of Canterbury, who wrote about the year 1080, that the 
relics of St. Eanswythe had been carefully preserved and 
were carried to this new Church and there venerated. 
His words are "Quae apud Folcustan deeposita veneratur." 

The Church and Monastery which Athelstan restored 
lasted about a hundred and twenty years. They were 
again destroyed by the powerful Earl Godwin, Lord 
Warden of the Cinque ports. This nobleman had 
quarrelled with the King and was outlawed, and in 
revenge ravaged the South coast of Kent, and reduced the 
Church and Priory to a heap of ruins, a.d. 1050. 

We now come to the first Norman foundation of a 
Church in Folkestone, a.d. 1093. This Church received 
the same dedication it would seem as the present Church 
of SS. Mary and Eanswythe, but was not built on the 
same site. The foundation of the existing Church dates 
from 1138, and the deed by which William de Averenches, 
its founder, granted it to the Monks of Folkestone recites 
that in the year 1095 : — 

" Nigel de Muneville and Emma his wife, for the welfare of their 
own souls and of the soul of the wife's parents, William de Archis 
and Beatrix his wife, gave to the Abbey of St. Mary at Louley and 
to Ranulph its Abbot the Church of St Mary and St. Eanswythe 
at Folkestone, which stood within the Castle precincts." 

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(A.D. 1095 TO 1484.) 

ESPECTING this new Church upon the present 
site, William de Averenches adds that " of their 
own free will, the monks of Folkestone desired to 
remove from the place within the Castle where they had 
been founded, to a certain new Church which he had given 
them, and to the new Priory next to that Church." There 
can be no doubt that this " new Church,'* founded A.D. 
1138, was the present Church of SS. Mary and Eanswythe. 
It has generally been thought that there were originally five 
Churches in Folkestone, but ** The five Churches men- 
tioned by the Domesday Survey, when it describes William 
de Archis' property of Fulchestan, were, as Hasted has 
pointed out, not in the town, nor in the present parish. 
They were those which then existed within the limits of 
the Honour, or Barony of Folkestone. The extent of 
that Honour is proved by the enumeration in Domesday, 
of no less than ten Knights who held lands within the 
Honour, from William de Arques (or Archis) its Lord. 

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Ci^nt^ of S^S^. HHurp anDi Cantfbptfte. 17 

The five Churches may probably have been those of 
Folkestone, Alkham, Capel, Hawkinge, and Cheriton. 
There was but one Church at Folkestone in a.d. 1291, 
when the * Taxatio ' of Pope Nicholas IV. was made, and 
that was certainly the existing Church of St. Mary and 
St. Eanswith."* 

We hear but little of Folkestone till the time of King 
John. When the intestine strife between himself and his 
Barons came to a crisis, Folkestone was for a short time 
his headquarters. Here he took up his abode for about 
twelve days in the month of May, 1216, and doubtless he 
worshipped in our present Parish Church. John had 
hired a number of needy adventurers from the Low 
Countries, and took the field against his own subjects. 
The lands of the Barons were ravaged far and wide, and 
towns and villages given to the flames. The Barons, in 
despair, offered the Crown to Louis, the eldest son of the 
King of France, who set sail from Calais with six hundred 
and eighty ships, and landed in the Isle of Thanet. 
Louis soon took possession of all the southern and eastern 
counties, and made a successful attack upon all Kentish 
towns which were occupied by the King's friends. Upon 
his approach to Folkestone, King John withdrew to 
Winchester, leaving Folkestone to its fate. Harris,! in 
his history of Kent, tells us that Folkestone was burnt 
by the French in the year 1216. It would therefore 
seem highly probable that our Parish Church was at 

^Archaeologia Cantiana. Vol. 10. 
t Harris' History of Kent. Book I., part 2, page 124. 

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i8 Ci)ttr(ft of S^t^. 0larp anU Can<fD]^tl^e. 

this time thus destroyed; and the difficulty, suggested 
by the renewal of the present chancel in the early 
part of the thirteenth century, is thus accounted for. 
In giving some historical account of this Church in the 
middle ages, I gladly avail myself of the careful researches 
of Canon Scott Robertson, the Honorary Secretary of the 
Kent Archaeological Society. Referring to the archi- 
tectural features of the Church, he says : — 

" The old lancet windows of the chancel, its clerestory lights 
now blocked up, its two aumbries (each tall and rectangular, with 
a vertical mullion dividing its aperture), and the small piscina, all 
seem to belong to the early English period, or thirteenth century. 
These marked features of the chancel, together with the form of the 
pillars and arches of its two short arcades, prove that if the Church 
was built in the twelfth century^ its eastern portion must have been 
altered during the thirteenth^ when the chancel aisles were built. 
Of the Early English Chancel Aisles nothing remains but the two 
arcades ; it is evident that the outer walls were re-built at a later 
period, but probably upon the old lines. The pillars and piers of 
these chancel arcades are of ragstone, their shafts are round, and 
their * d crochet * capitals are plainly, almost roughly, ornamented 
with broad leaves terminating, at their upper ends, in projecting 
knobs. The hardness of the stone is sufficient to account for the 
lack of elaboration in the work ; caps of the same design are to 
be seen in the chancel arch of Westcliff Church. 

" The noble monument in the north wall of the chancel was 
probably erected early in the reign of Edward III. The archi- 
tecture of the tomb, and the armour of the knight thereon repre- 
sented, approximately fix its date. 

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Cf)ntcf^ of iHb. fllarp anH <Eantfbpti)e. 


"The knight upon this tomb is represented as wearing a 
complete suit of chain mail, to which are added knee-pieces, 
greaves, soUerets, gauntlets, and a low-crowned bascinet, all of 
plate. His hawberk of mail is pointed in front, not acutely, but 
with a gently rounded curve. Beneath it the folds of the hauketon 

(probably sir JOHN DE SEGRAVE.) 

are shewn. Above the hawberk are two garments ; one of them 
seems to be a pourpoint which, following the lines of the hawberk, 
is obtusely pointed in front ; the other, and upper garment seems 
to be a cyclas, longer behind than in front, and laced up the iside 
in a very marked manner ; the lace holes being ornamented with 

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20 (Rf^ut^ of S^S^. i&avv aitD (£anii\optbt. 

large fleurs-de-lis. The knight's tilting helm, upon which rests 
his head, is secured to a hook upon his chest by means of a chain. 
His feet rest upon a lion. The shield, sword, spurs and other 
details are either gone, or are too defaced to be described. The 
absence of plate upon the shoulders, arms, elbows, and thighs, 
must be noticed. This fact, coupled with the chain of the tilting 
helm, and other minutiae, gives to the figure an earlier character 
than the architecture of the tomb suggests. 

" There is no effigy which seems to furnish an exact parallel. 
That of Sir Oliver Ingham (a.d. 1343) at Ingham in Norfolk, 
shews the pointed hawberk, the strapped greaves, and the cyclas, 
and it has figures of mourners (24) about the tomb. The effigies 
of Sir John de Ifield (a.d. 1317) at Ifield in Sussex; of a knight 
sometimes called Sir John de Grove in St. Peter's, Sandwich, and 
of Sir Roger de Kerdeston (a.d. 1337) at Reepham in Norfolk, 
all have points of resemblance to this and yet differ from it 
considerably. The same may be said of the effigy, on brass, of 
the younger Sir John d'Aubernon who died in 1327. Upon the 
whole, the strongest probability seems to be that this tomb com- 
memorates a Sir John de Segrave, either the last of that name, 
as suggested by Mr. Lambert Larking, or his father, who is said 
to have re-built the Priory and who died in 1343, only six years 
before his son. 

"In July, 1325, this Church was, doubtless, the scene of 
imposing ceremonies connected with the death, in Folkestone 
Priory, of John Salmon, Bishop of Norwich. He had landed at 
this place, ill, on his return from France, and although he was 
ultimately carried to his own Cathedral Church for interment, 
most probably his herse would first be erected in this Church. 

"A few years later, in 1338, King Edward III. issued an order 
which affected this and many other Churches upon the coast. 

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Ct)urc{) of S^Si, fBiwci^ anDi CaiiKbptl^r. 

The order, dated on the 20th of November, forbade the ringing 
of more than one bell in any Church that stood within seven 
leagues of the sea. The object of such restriction was to provide 
an easy method of warning the inhabitants if an enemy should 
land upon their shores. In that case, and only then, all the bells 
of the Church were to be rung as an alarm of war ; but for any 
ordinary religious service not more than one bell was to be used. 
"At the commencement of the fifteenth century the records 
connected with this Church tell of tumult, strife, and bloodshed 
here; not merely in the town, but actually within the precinct 
of the Churchyard. Such is the story told by an entry in the 
register of Archbishop Arundel. We are thereby informed that 
on account of the pollution of the Churchyard of this Conventual 
or Parochial Church, by the effusion of blood, the Archbishop 
issued to Prior Nicholas Cheryton a Commission whereby he 
was authorized to reconcile, or to cause some Catholic Bishop to 
reconcile, that is, practically to re-consecrate, the said Churchyard. 
The Commission was dated 2nd April, 1403. What led to this 
bloodshedding does not appear.'' * 

From several wills and bequests in the fifteenth century 
we learn that this Church had several altars and images, 
before which lights were kept constantly burning, and also 
that there were several Fraternities connected with it. 

" In 1464, John Baker, amongst other bequests to this Church, 
left 4d. to the 'Light of the Little Cross, of which I am a Brother,' 
and in 1472 Thomas Hunt left 6d. to the 'Fraternity of the Light 
of the Little Cross.' The latter testator likewise left 4d. to the 
' Light of the Fraternity of the Purification of St. Mary the Virgin ' 

* Archaeologia Cantiana. Vol. 10. 

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22 Ci^urci) of &^, HSLatyf anH (Sansfopti^e. 

in the same Church ; this, therefore, was a second Fraternity. In 
1473, Stephen Goldfynch left 4d. to the 'Light of the Corpus 
Christi Fraternity ; ' here we find mention of a third Fraternity, 
but this is the last, there seem to have been but three in this 
Church. William Bachelor, in 1469, left 4d. to *each Light of 
which I am a Brother ("frater")', and in 1473 Thomas Caase left 
8d. ('cuilibet lumini cuius sum frater in eadem ecclesia'). 

"Various wills made during the second half of the fifteenth 
century give us considerable information respecting this building ; 
but we find nothing touching the erection of the fine central tower, 
nor of the handsome fluted octagonal font, both of which prob- 
ably date from the end of the fourteenth, or early part of the 
fifteenth century. Of the interior of this Church the central 
tower, with its groined roof, is a principal feature. The stone 
benches, which surround the bases of its four piers, are worthy 
of remark. Perhaps there are few, if any. Churches which still 
retain stone seats around the piers of a central tower. It was not 
uncommon in the middle ages thus to utilize the bases of the piers 
and columns of arcades. Examples may be seen at St. Margaret's 
at Cliff, and at Upchurch, where also, as at Adisham, the stone 
benches which ran along the side walls of the nave remain tn situ, 

" Soon after the middle of the fifteenth century the good people 
of Folkestone seem to have evinced great desire to improve their 
Church and to add to its ornaments. In 1458 Matthew Waryn 
left the large sum of ten marks for new vestments. In 1463 Alice 
Brette left a tablecloth and a basin to the Altar of St. Mary of Pity 
in this Church ; and in 1464 John Reade left five marks for the 
purchase of a new missal. 

**In the latter year, 1464, John Baker directed his executors 
to * make one work called " an yle " with a certain window in the 
same, acting upon the best advice they can obtain from such 

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parishioners as are most worthy of being consulted upon the 
matter; this work shall be built and constructed between the 
vestry of the Church and the great window, with such materials 
as shall be best and most suitable for it, in stone, glass, iron, lead, 
wood, and all things needful.' We are enabled to fix the position 
of this aisle by means of the testimony of Philipot, the herald and 
historian, wl)o was himself born at Folkestone, about 100 years 
after John Baker made his will. In his account of the parish of 
Capel, Philipot says that the family of Baker, of Caldham in Capel, 
and of Morehall in Folkestone, had a peculiar chancel belonging 
to them in this Church ; he adds that it was near the vestry door, 
and over the charnel house. His mention of the vestry door 
identifies the Baker Chancel with the aisle built or rebuilt by 
John Baker's executors, and his allusion to the charnel house 
shews that the Baker Chancel was upon the south side of this 
Church. The charnel house is a vault beneath the south chancel, 
in which vault, tradition says, were interred the bones of men 
killed in a great battle fought near Follcestone, the bones of their 
opponents, far greater in number, being deposited in a charnel house 
beneath the south chancel of Hythe Church. The battle theory 
is questionable ; but there is great likelihood that bones from the 
desecrated cemetery of the old Priory and Church may have been 
deposited together in one vault here. 

"In connection with Baker's south chancel, we may mention 
a bequest made by Thos. Newsole, in 1465, for a window in the 
south part of this Church, opposite the altar of St. George. To 
the Light of St. George, John Baker left a bequest of 4d. 
Newsole's bequest may have referred to the south wall of the old 
nave ; if not, it must have been an addition in or near to John 
Baker's Chancel, and this idea is supported by Baker's bequest 
to St. George's Light. What was the dedication of Baker's south 

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24 Ci)ur(i) of ^S^. iWlarp anU (ttumb^ptht. 

chancel we cannot clearly ascertain. He left bequests to the 
Light of Little Cross of which he was a brother, and to the Light 
of St. Mary of Pity. From other wills we learn that there was 
a chancel dedicated to St. Mary of Pity, and that there was a 
* Light of Holy Cross in the chancel of St. Mary de Pity,' so that 
we may perhaps have ground for supposing that Baker's Chancel 
was dedicated to St Mary of Pity. It is probable, but not 

"There was another chancel, dedicated to St. Nicholas. In 
^465 Johanna Cheveler left 4d. to the Light of the Holy Cross 
in the chancel of St. Nicholas, and the same Light is mentioned 
in 1484 by a testator named Carder. 

" A third chancel was dedicated to St. John the Baptist. In 
1473 Thomas Caase desired to be buried * in the chancel of St. 
John the Baptist.' 

" We will now turn to the High Chancel. In the will of John 
Reade, dated 1464, we find the rather singular bequest of * five 
marks to a certain beam above the High Altar.* This is paralleled 
by a smaller bequest, left in the following year by Thomas New- 
sole * to a certain beam which is to be new made above the High 
Altar.' What was this beam ? We cannot describe it better than 
by quoting from the account of Conrad's * glorious choir ' in Can- 
terbury Cathedral, as written by Gervase, a Canterbury monk, at 
or about the end of the twelfth century. After stating that the 
Archbishop's Patriarchal chair stood within the choir screen, 
behind and directly east of the Altar of Christ, or High Altar, 
and was raised above that altar by the height of eight steps which 
lead up to it, Gervase goes on thus : — * At the eastern horns of 
the altar were two wooden columns, highly ornamented with gold 
and silver, which supported a great beam, the ends of which beam 
rested on the capitals of the two pillars. This beam, placed across 

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the Church, and decorated with gold, supported the Majesty of 
the Lord, the image of St Dunstan and St. Elphege ; also seven 
shrines decorated with gold and silver, and filled witli the relics 
of many saints. Between the columns stood a cross, gilt, in the 
centre of which were sixty transparent crystals in a circle.' From 
the bequests of John Reade and Thomas Newsole it is evident 
that, about the year 1464, or 1465, such a beam as Gervase 
describes was placed above the High, or Jesus, Altar of this 
Church. We learn also from other bequests that, as in Canter- 
bury Choir there was behind the High Altar a space upon which 
was elevated the Patriarchal Chair, so in Folkestone High Chancel 
there was behind the High Altar a space which was dedicated to the 
Virgin. In 1469, Thomas Yoklet left 4d. to the 'Light of St. 
Mary behind the High Altar,* ('lumini Beate Marie a retro summo 
altari '). In 1472 John Cole left 4d., and in 1473 Robert Jacob 
left 2d., to this * Light of St. Mary behind the High Altar.' The 
will of John Cole makes it quite clear that this was entirely distinct 
from the Light and Chancel of * St. Mary of Pity,' and from the 
' Light of the Purification of St. Mary,' for he leaves bequests to 
all three of them. When we observe the two aumbries (one in 
the north wall, and the other in the south) and the piscina in 
this high chancel, we may perceive that they are further removed 
from the east wall than was usually the case at the period of their 
construction. It may be that the chancel was originally built 
thus, to leave space behind the high altar for an altar, shrine, image 
or Light. It is however possible that the aumbries and piscina 
have been removed from their original positions; or that the 
chancel has been lengthened a little towards the east. Early 
English aumbries, with divided rectangular apertures, are frequently 
found in the east wall itself, so that the supposition of the removal 
of the aumbries to the positions they now occupy seems very 

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probable. From the beam over the High Altar, in all likelihood, 
hangings depended by which the central space behind the altar 
would be shut out from view. 

" The tide of zeal for the improvement of this Church flowed 
on for several years in Folkestone, and is evidenced by the wills 
of ihe parishioners. In 1467 John Cooke left five marks for the 
purchase of a new silver thurible, with two silver spoons ; and in 
1469 we find evidence to shew that useful work for the comfort 
of the worshippers was in contemplation. This was nothing less 
than the erection of pews. In 1469 William Bacheler, of Folke- 
stone, after leaving bequests to the Vicar, and to every Light of 
which he was a brother in this Church, goes on to say, * Also I 
leave 10 the work which is called "le pewis" in the aforesaid 
Church, when the parishioners shall cause that work to be done, 
the sum of 13s. 4d.' The terms of this bequest shew that in 1469 
pews were in contemplation here, and that their erection was 
to be the work of the parishioners generally. The light thus 
thrown upon the method of fitting this Church for the 
accommodation of the people in the fifteenth century, is useful 
and interesting ; no doubt other like bequests can be found. 
There are many specimens of fifteenth century pews still re- 
maining in various parts of the kingdom. They are in shape 
similar to those which are now universally adopted in our 
Churches, but they were often enriched with elaborate carving.* 

"Five years later we hear of the commencement of further 
buildings, upon the north side of the Church. In April 1474 
John Hert senior after leaving two ram sheep to the fabric of the 

* Such a specimen of the carved oak pews then set up in the Church is 
in the possession of the present Vicar, by whom it was found some years 
ago when a portion of the Chancel pavement was removed. 

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Ci)itr(i) ot {b§^. 0Urp anir CantftoptJ^e. 27 

Church, and bequests to the Vicar, the Sacristan, and two parish 
clerks, says, ' Also I leave 40s. to a certain work called the North 
Isle in the same Church, provided the said work be built upon 
the old wall there. Also I leave to a certain window in the same 
work 13s. 4d. provided it be made as large as one of the windows 
designed by John Baker.' This reference to John Baker's windows, 
which were in the south chancel, gives us some ground for 
supposing that the window mentioned by John Hert would most 
probably be opposite to those in Baker's Chancel. This would 
shew that the aisle then about to be re-built, upon its old lines, 
was the north aisle of the chancel, which still remains.* 

*' Looking up at the north wall of this aisle we see, built into 
the wall high up, probably as corbels for the timbers of a roof, 
two stones which are carved each with an engrailed cross. Mr. 
R. C. Hussey, who has thoroughly examined this Church, informs 
me that these are ancient gravestones from the Churchyard, used 
up by the builders in the fifteenth century, and that similar stones 
may still be seen in situ in some Kentish Churchyards. 

" The same testator, John Hert, who speaks of the rebuilding 
of the north aisle, likewise gave to the Church 33s. 4d. for the 
purchase of a new chalice. 

''In 1465, Johanna Cheveler desired to be buried within this 
Church near the image of St. Christopher. Probably there was 
an altar to that saint, at all events sundry bequests (from Jno. 
Reade, Thos. Newsole, John Cole, John Hert, Thos. Cooke, and 
others) prove that there was in this Church a Light in honour of 
St. Christopher. 

** The Light of St Mary of Pity was very popular in Folkestone, 
the bequests to it are numerous, and include one rather curious 

* This Aisle is now used as the Ladye Chapel. 

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legacy from Johanna Byrkynden, who in 1465 left to this Light 
* one schor-net.' 

'* St. Eanswith, the other patroness of the Church, was not 
forgotten. We find that Folkestone people named their daughters 
after her in the fifteenth century, and to the Light of St. Eanswith 
bequests were left by Matthew Waryn in 1458, by Alicia Jacob in 
1464, by Wm. Jenkyn in 1473, ^^^ by Thos. Cooke in 1484. 

" Among the other Lights to which bequests were left we find 
those of St Nicholas ; Corpus Christi ; St. George ; St. John 
Baptist; St. Stephen; St. Michael; St. James; St. Anne; St 
Peter ; the High Cross, and the Herse Light Altogether, we 
have mentioned eighteen separate Lights, which were supported 
in this Church during the fifteenth century." 

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^I^e )9rtor$ of ^oVkt^tom^ 

jHE Priory of Folkestone was annexed to the 
Abbey of Louley, in Normandy, by Nigel de 
Muneville. I have not been able to obtain 
an)rthing like an accurate list of the Priors. Samson 
Senionem was appointed by the Abbot of Louley in 1372, 
and several succeeding Priors were appointed by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. The following interesting corres- 
pondence, discovered amongst the Municipal records of 
Folkestone by Canon Jenkins, will give some idea of the 
immense power and authority wielded by the feudal Lords 
in the latter part of the fifteenth century. It would appear 
that one Thomas Banys, who had been Prior of Folke- 
stone, and had left the Priory, obtained the appointment 
of Chaplain to the King's mother; but afterwards desired 
to return to his former position as Prior. In the mean- 
time, a brother-in-law of the great Lord Clynton and 
Saye, the feudal ruler of Folkestone, had been installed 
as Prior. Backed by the influence of the King, the 
King's mother and the Archbishop claimed anew his 
Priorate. Upon this. Lord Clynton, who feared not to 
withstand the highest authorities both in Church and 

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30 Cibe Srtoriel of Jfol&eieltone. 

State, addresses to his subjects at Folkestone a kind of 
imperial manifesto, which can only be appreciated in his 
own energetic words. 

Letter of Lord Clynton to the Mayor and Jurates of 
Folkestone, dated 24th May, 1464 : — 

" Right Worshipful! Sirs, y pray yow as ye love my worship 
profit and welfare, that for any letter sende to yow by the King or 
by my ladi of Yorke for Dan Thomas Banys ayenst the welfare of 
my brother fferrers, that ye suflfre not the said Banis in no wise to 
enter into the priorie of ffolkestone, but hym utterlye resiste and 
defende in my title as my verrai right and patronage as full and 
hole as Y were there myself. And I uppon the peyne of all my 
landis and godis that save you all harmless ayenst the King and 
my saide lady hi the help of my lord fferrers my lord Herbarde 
and other lordis of the Kinges Councell that knoweth my right 
and title. And it shall not be longe to but that the King and my 
lady shall write the contrarie that is written for the saide Banis, 
for I have spoke with my lerned Councell of all this and they sey 
me gif ye obey this writing that is brought to you from the King 
and my ladye ye shall breke for ever the libertie and franchis of 
the portis for ever, whiche were youre undoing and my shaam for 
ever. And that y wolde not for all my lande. And therefore charge 
you that ye well understand and taketh heed of my writing for 
any talis or writing for your welfare and my worship and all myn 
hereafter. And over that y charge All my servants that thei be 
helping towards you to defende and resiste the said Banis. And 
also y charge yow as ye will answere to me therefore that ye 
arreste the said Banis and all them that come with him, except 
the Kings Servants and my lady of Yorkes. And them Sanfly 
Kepe in prison un to tyme that thei answere to certaine contempts 

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Vbt Snor^of JFoIitetftone. 31 

and trespa3ses doone to me and my lordship of Folkestone ayenst 

the privilege and franchis and liberty of the portis, and not to 

deliver them withoute my Special Commandemente — ^Yeven at 

Westminster under my signe manual for youre suretie the 28th 

day of May. 

" Your hertly and faithfull lorde John 

•* Lord Clynion and Say, 


The letter of the King's mother to the Mayor of Folke- 
stone, who must have felt his position between the two 
fires to have been rather an awkward one, is as follows : — 
"The Kynges moder 


" Trusty and welbeloved we grele you well. And where as we 
understande that it hath pleased my lord and son the Kyng, and 
also our Cousin Tharchbisshop of Canterbury entendeaunt the 
right of our welbeloved Chapellaine Thomas Banys to wryte for 
hym unto you and therefore to see hym receive (?) such lyvelode 
[livelihood] as he ought of right dewyce [to havej. We desire 
and pray you that according unto the tenure of the letters of our 
said lord and son and cousin aforesaid ye put you in devoyr to 
the performyng of the same and with the more diligence at our 
special contemplacion as we trust you. And that no person'e vexe 
unquiet or trouble hym as we may for his sake thanke you in time 
to come. Yeven under our signet at our place at Baynardys 
Castell in london the xxvij day of Maye. 

" The seal in red wax. 

" (Endorsed) To our trusty and welbeloved 
"The Mayre of ffolkeston' and to 
**ever*ch of theyme." 

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Cj^e Srior^ of Jfolitesttoiu. 

The close of this history appears to be this : The ** fals 
man," as Lord Clynton calls Prior Banys in another letter 
which he addressed to the Mayor, triumphed for a time ; 
but in the end he was discovered to be as false as Lord 
Clynton proclaimed him to be. In the Archbishopric of 
Cardinal Morton, as late as 1491, he was charged with 
various excesses and dishonest appropriations of the 
goods of the Priory, and in 1493 was deprived. 

The Priory was ultimately suppressed in 1535, when 
Thomas Barret, the last of the Priors, resigned and 
obtained a pension of £10 per year, and £3 additional as 
Warden of the Confraternity. A stone lid of a coffin 
may be seen in the Belfry, bearing on its upper surface 
a device resembling a double crozier. There can be 
little doubt that it once covered the remains of one of 
the Priors of Folkestone. 

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Wf)i l^tfovmatiott )9erioli. 

(A.D. 1535, &C.) 

|E now come to the great upheaval of the 
Sixteenth Century, when the arrangements of 
the interior of the Church, as already described, 
must have been re-modelled, and the many Altars, Lights, 
and Images, have been removed. 

It is not uncommon for persons to speak of this period 
in the history of the English Church, as one in which the 
old Church was destroyed and a new Church founded. 
It cannot be too distinctly affirmed ; and in view of the 
prevailing misunderstanding on the subject, it cannot be 
too often reiterated, that the Church of England has 
never been other than the Church of England, all through 
the ages of the past. For some centuries prior to the 
Reformation the English Church submitted herself, to a 
considerable extent, though never altogether, to the claims 
of the Roman Bishop to universal domination ; but to 
speak of her rejection of those claims, and her return to 
the independence of the. ancient Celtic Church, as the 

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34 ^^f Slefonnatton Senotr. 

abolition of the old Church and the creation of a new 
one, is as absurd as it would be to say that our old Parish 
Church became a new one because some of the Altars 
were removed, and the lights burning before images, and 
some other objects of superstitious veneration, were done 
away with in the Sixteenth Century. 

At this period of our Church's history considerable 
changes were effected in the interior arrangements of our 
Cathedrals and Parish Churches. The Services were re- 
modelled, the mother tongue was substituted for a dead 
language, the Holy Communion was again celebrated in 
accordance with our Lord's institution, and the Chalice 
was restored to the people. And further, the Church of 
England was relieved of some accretions which had been 
gradually accumulating around the ancient deposit of the 
faith. But there was no transference of property from 
one Church to another, for there never was any other 
Church in England than the Church of England. To 
speak of the Church of this country, before the Reforma- 
tion, as " the Church of Rome " is an absurd misnomer ; 
and inasmuch as erroneous terms often re-act and pro- 
duce erroneous impressions, it is most important that 
this matter should be cleared up. No one can point 
to any Act of Parliament purporting to hand over our 
Churches, or Church property, from the Church of Rome 
to the Church of England. It never was any other than 
the Anglican Church. It is so termed in ancient docu- 
ments. For example, the Magna Charta of King John 
opens with these words, ** Let the Church of England 

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Ci^e Sleformatton 9'rioK. 35 

(ecclesia anglicana) be free." The prevalent misconcep- 
tion has, no doubt, arisen from the fact to which I have 
just referred, viz., that for some centuries prior to the 
Reformation, the English Church had subordinated herself 
to the usurped claims of the Bishop of Rome. In the 
sixteenth century she threw off a yoke to which she 
ought never to have submitted, and returned to her 
ancient independence. No new Church was founded, 
but the old one was reformed. There was no break in 
the succession of her bishops and clergy. The same 
priests, for the most part, continued to minister at the 
same Altars, using the revised Office Book. And here 
let me quote a very significant statement made from the 
judicial bench by Lord Chief Justice Coke. 

He tells us that Pope Pius IV. had sent " a private 
nuncio to England in 1560, with an offer to agree to all 
the changes the English Church had made in her Liturgy, 
as also to the translation of the Scriptures, and the 
appointment of bishops, if only his supremacy might be 
recognized. The nuncio was forbidden to land, but the 
circumstance proves that the chief struggle between 
England and Rome was for the right of a National 
Church to be free from alien jurisdiction ; and that no 
new faith was imposed on the nation." * 

" It was not till 1570, when Pius V. saw that all hope 
of recovering England by diplomacy had failed, that he 
published a Bull of excommunication (Regnans in excelsis) 
against Elizabeth; in which she was most insultingly 

* Illustrated Notes on English Church History. Vol. II., folio 93. 

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36 Ci^e i&rformatton Sertotr. 

described, her subjects absolved from their allegiance, the 
throne declared vacant, and all Christians, loyal to the 
Pope, commanded to separate themselves from the mode 
of worship she upheld in her realm ! A very few persons 
obeyed this mandate, and became the first English Roman 
Catholics; but the vast majority of English churchfolk, 
who had cherished a lingering love for the papacy, were 
so horrified at this exhibition of ultramontane insolence, 
that they at once became firmly loyal to the national re- 
ligion. The English Church is not then a schism from the 
Church of Rome, but the English Roman Catholics 
seceded from the old Church of England." * 

The validity of the Consecration of Archbishop Parker, 
for a time called in question by the absurd " Nag's Head 
Story," is now admitted by all candid persons who have 
taken the trouble to look into the matter, and examine 
the Register at Lambeth, which contains the particulars 
of Parker's Consecration. Before passing from this 
subject, it may not be uninteresting to recall an occasion 
upon which Archbishop Parker paid a visit to Folkestone. 
Queen Elizabeth was making one of her royal progresses. 
She had been staying at her Castle of Westenhanger, 
which she left on the 25th August, 1753, and having 
dined at Sandgate Castle, started thence for Dover. As 
the Royal cavalcade ascended the hill to Folkestone 
downs, a gay and glittering array was seen awaiting the 
Queen's approach. There was Archbishop Parker, who 
had come over from Bekesbourne, near Canterbury, with 
*Ibid, folio 93 and 94. 

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Cf^e Slrformatuiti Smotr. 37 

a great train of attendants. There also was Lord Cob- 
ham, Warden of the Five Ports, with a goodly gathering 
of friends, officials, and dependants. There also was 
Holiday, the Mayor of Folkestone, with the jurates, and 
their petition ; there too were all the flower of the East 
Kent knights and gentlemen, more than 300 in number, 
and there too, doubtless, was the select band of Folkestone, 
fifty strong. The spectacle must have been glorious, and 
imposing in the extreme, when the Royal cavalcade, 
having been received and welcomed by these many 
hundreds of the men of Kent, mingled its forces with 
them, as they gaily escorted the magnificent Elizabeth 
all the way from Folkestone downs to Dover Castle. 
The Queen did not fail to carry off a very useful memento 
of her welcome on Folkestone downs. A handsome horse, 
belonging to Archbishop Parker, excited her admiration, 
to such an extent, that his Grace was constrained to offer 
it to Her Majesty as a gift, which she most graciously 

Petition to the King. 

In the reign of Charles I. Folkestone was suffering 
greatly from the encroachment of the sea, so that the 
fears of the inhabitants were actually aroused for the 
safety of the Church, as will be seen by the following 
petition addressed to the King : — 

" To the King's most excellent Majestic 
" The humble peticion of the Maior, Jurates, & Co'ialtie 
of the Towne of fTolkstone and others charitably 
disposed and well affected to the place. 

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38 Ci)e Hefonnattoit Seriotr. 

" Humbly sheweth that the Town of fTolkstone in the Countie 
of Kent, hath heretofore florished by meanes of fishing and trade 
by sea, and hath furnished very hable Pilots and Mariners for the 
Kingdome's service, and from time to time hath contributed great 
summes of money towardes the setting forth of shipps ; but is now 
of late fallen into great decay and the Inhabitants become very 
poore ; by meanes the sea (working some alteracions upon the 
Coast) hath of late fetched in, and carried awaie their ancient 
stade or station, where their vessells were used to be layd up in 
safety. So that they are altogether deprived of the meanes to 
secure their barques, and consequently of conveniency of trade 
and fishing ; and the sea likewise by washing, beating, and under- 
mining the Cliffs bath incroached and woon soe much upon the 
land that it is approached within seavmtie paces of the Churchy 
which standes upon the said Cliff, soe undermined, and threatteneth 
in short time to winne the same (as heretofore yt hath fetched in 
two other churches there) if speedy course be not taken to stoppe 
the breach upon the shoare and defend the violence of the 

"Your said Peticioners therefore humbly crave that your 
Majestie wilbe gratiously pleased to give licence by roiall graunt, 
under your Majestie's great seale unto your said Peticioners for 
building a Peare and harbour there at theire owne charges, with 
like rights dutyes benefitts and priviledges as other places of har- 
bour have obteyned and doe enjoy from the roiall bountie of your 
Majestie or your Majestie's predecessors. And in regard of their 
povertie & that they have undertaken the charge of soe great a 
worke, chiefly out of charitie of others well affected to the common 
good, They further humbly praie that your Majestie will give order 
by yor' prencely commaund that your said roiall graunt in that 
behalf may be passed by ymediate warrant and without fees. Your 

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Cj^e Sleformattoit $enoK. 39 

Majestie shall thereby cause that the Church shalbee secured, the 
fishing and trade restored, the number of Mariners increased, your 
Majestie's customes advanced, and a multitude of poore people 
by their lawfull endeavours relieved. And your peticioners shall 
contynually praie for your Majestie's long and happie raigne. 

" His Majestie for soe good & charitable a worke is gratiously 
pleased to graunt the Petitioners this their suit as in the Petic'on 
is desired. And his Majestie's Attorney Generall is to prepare a 
graunt accordingly ready for his Majestie's roiall signature. 

** Theo : Suffolke." 

What was done to preserve the Church we are not 
told ; but the danger apprehended seems to have entirely 
passed away, for the sea is now rather receding than 
encroaching on the western side of Folkestone. 

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(A.D. 1640 TO 1662.) 

TIME of severe trial was now in store for the 
English Church. The rejection of an un- 
warrantable claim to supremacy, on the part of 
a foreign prelate, was followed up by the overturning of all 
lawful authority. Splinters, in the shape of varied and 
ever-varying sects, began to fly off in different directions, 
till, in the middle of the seventeenth century, the Crom- 
wellian party had gained sufficient strength to overthrow 
the Monarchy, and lay the Church herself prostrate in the 
dust. The ancient and beautiful Cathedrals and Churches 
of our land were then shamelessly desecrated, the Altars 
were removed from their places, and the sacred vessels 
melted down to fill the coffers of the spoilers. The 
Liturgy was proscribed, and the faithful met in dens and 
caves, or in the thick of the forest, to join in their loved 
worship, or else to sit down and weep when they 
remembered Zion. The marks left by the ruthless axe 
and hammer of the iconoclast have not yet been entirely 

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Cie dreat )&ebelItoii. 41 

effaced from Folkestone Church. ** With extreme license," 
we are told, ** the common people took upon themselves 
the reforming, without authority, order, or decency; 
rudely disturbing the Church Service while the Common 
Prayer was reading, tearing the books, surplices, and such 
things." ♦ 

We can form some idea how the Parliamentary order 
to destroy all *' monuments of idolatry" was obeyed, when 
we look at the once perfect and beautiful monument of 
the recumbent Knight in the north wall of the Sanctuary. 
The crocketed canopy has been partially destroyed, the 
figure itself mutilated, and the seven weeping figures, 
on the lower part of the tomb, shamefully knocked 

It would seem that the dominant puritanical party 
broke into the Church, and destroyed or damaged all 
the ancient and beautiful works of art with which the 
Church had once been adorned. The painted windows 
were broken, as a sort of pastime, and the mullions des- 
troyed. In restoring the Vesica window at the east end 
of the Sanctuary, bits of the old painted glass were found 
imbedded amongst the stones and mortar with which the 
window had been blocked up. 

It was doubtless at this period that the old Churchyard 
Cross, around which the inhabitants had been wont to 
assemble from year to year to elect their Mayor, was 
levelled with the ground. There is a curious old MS. in 
the British Museum which informs us that annually, ** on 

* Wray's History of the Long Parliament. 

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42 C]^e dreat i&cbellion. 

the Feast of the Nativity of our Blessed Ladye" the 
inhabitants of Folkestone are to be called together by the 
blowing of a horn,* in order to proceed to the election of 
a Mayor, and that if, when so elected by a majority of 
those present, he shall refuse to serve the office, the people 
shall have the power to pull down his principal house. 

A Sun-dial now stands on the original steps, where 
once the sacred Sign of our Redemption overshadowed 
the remains of the departed forefathers of the Parish. A 
movement to restore the Churchyard Cross, around which 
so many deeply interesting associations gather, was set 
on foot some few years ago, and an admirable design was 
prepared for the purpose ; but the tide of prejudice, then 
running father strongly, interposed, and necessitated, I 
am ashamed to say it, a temporary postponement. 

Inscriptions on Tombstones. 

Among the many inscriptions in the Churchyard, there 
are none possessing any special historical interest except 
that of Rebecca Rogers, which stands against the North 
wall of the Chancel. She seems to have been one of 
those aggrieved persons who, in the reign of James II., 
had special reasons for disliking the tax upon Chimneys. 
Macaulay, in his fascinating history of those times, tells 
us that " along the whole line of march of William of 
Orange, from Torbay to London, he was importuned by 
the common people to relieve them of the intolerable 

• The Horn has been preserved, and may be seen hanging np over the 
Mayor's seat in the Council Chamber of the Town Hall. 

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W^t dreat 3&ebeIIton. 43 

burden of * hearth,' or ' Chimney Money.' In truth that 
tax seems to have united all the worst evils which can 
be imputed to any tax. It was unequal, and unequal 
in the most pernicious way, for it pressed heavily on the 
poor and lightly on the rich. The collectors were 
empowered to examine the interior of every house in the 
realm, to disturb families at meals, to force the doors of 
bedrooms, and, if the sum demanded were not punctually 
paid, to sell the trencher on which the barley loaf was 
divided among the poor children, and the pillow from 
under the head of the sick woman. Nor could the 
treasury eflfectually restrain the Chimney-man from using 
his powers with harshness ; for the tax was farmed, and 
the Government was constantly forced to connive at 
outrages and exactions such as have, in every age, made 
the name of publican (tax gatherer) a proverb for all that 
is most hateful. The King exerted himself for the abolition 
of this tax, and an Act of Parliament was carried by which 
the Chimney-tax was declared a badge of slavery, and 
was, with many expressions of gratitude to the King, 
abolished for ever." 

Here is Rebecca Rogers' facetious allusion to this tax 
upon Chimneys : — 

"A House she hath, its made of such good fashion, 
The Tenant ne'er shall pay for reparation 
Nor will her Landlord ever raise her rent 
Or turn her out of doors for non-payment 
From Chimney-money too this cell is free 
Of such a House who would not Tenant be." 

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(A.D. 1635 TO 1694.) 

|H£ oldest Register Book of the parish com- 
mences A.D. 1635, and contains some interesting 
references to the period of the Commonwealth. 
From it we gather that one, Peter Rogers, was Vicar of 
Folkestone at the time of the Great Rebellion. He was 
probably one of the seven thousand beneficed clergy who 
were ejected from their livings by the "Long Parliament," 
because of their faithfulness to the Church. He does 
not seem to have been held in very high esteem by 
his parishioners, who, appealing to Parliament for 
a larger income for their Vicar, ask that Peter Rogers 
may be pensioned off. I extract the following " Petition 
to the House of Commons," from a very interesting 
work printed for the Camden Society, dealing with 
"proceedings in the County of Kent in connection with 
the Committee of Religion, appointed by the Parliament 
of 1640." 

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"Petition to the House of Commons for increase of 
Income, etc, to the Perpetual Curate. 

" From the Inhabitants of Folkestone, loth July, 1641. 

" To the Honourable assemblie of the House of Commons. 

" The humble Petition of the Parishoners of the Town of 
Folkeston, in the Countie of Kent, 
" Sheweth, 
"That wheras Folkeston being a maior towne, and a large 
parish extending itselfe two miles into the shire, the parsonage 
whereof, being an impropriation, and belonging to the Sea of 
Canterburie, the Lords of Canterburie still leasing out the same, 
and reserving to themselves 80/. per annum, and a renewing 
fine everie fourth yeare, the tennant whereof now is Mr. Arnald 
Brames, who hath yett to come eleven yeares in itt, and letteth 
out the same for 300/. by the yeare ; and yett the Lord of 
Canterburie doth allow his Curate of Folkeston but the bare 
stipend of 20/. per annum, without having a house to live in, or 
any other help whatsoever. Now your Petitioners doe humblie 
pray, that you would be pleased to grant such a competent allow- 
ance for the maintenance of the Minister of Folkeston, as in your 
wisdomes and pious care shalbe thought requisite; and wheras 
the Curate of Folkeston that now is, is a sicklie aged man and 
faileth much in his voice and sight whereby he is not soe able 
to performe his ministerial! dutie as he himselfe would, and the 
parish requireth, your Petitioners doe further pray, that they may 
have a yonger and a more pregnant man, for the performing 
of holy and divine service, and yett the old minister now 
being, may have some exhibition to keepe him during his 
life, and afterward the same to revert to the minister of 
Folke-stone again. 

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46 Clb^ HfiaxUl^ i&egtslUri^. 

" And your Petitioners shalbe bound in all dutie and thankful- 
ness to pray for your prosperous succes and happines. 
" Basil Dixwell. Henry Tiddyman. 

Marke Dixwell. Henry Rolfe. 

John Dixwell. Benjamin Master, Major. 

William Reade. Henry Kennett, Juratt. 

William Jenkin. Thomas Inmith, Juratt. 

Thomas Denn. Thomas Stiles, Juratt. 

Richard Francklin. Robart Culverdon, Jurat. 

Stephen Hobdaye. 
" [Endorsed by S' Edward Dering — * 1641, i6 July— Petition — 

The Book from which the above is extracted is not 
published, but privately printed from ** Collections by Sir 
Edward Dering, Bart., 1627-1644." 

It will be remembered that Sir Edward was an ardent 
ultra-Puritan. He was elected a Member of the " Long 
Parliament" which appointed a "Committee of Religion" 
to hear complaints against the Bishops and Clergy ; and 
Sir Edward was ever forward to endorse such complaints, 
and present the petitions of the, would be, aggrieved 
parishioners. Archbishop Laud, whose memorial window, 
in the north aisle, will give me the opportunity presently 
of referring to his life and martyrdom, must have had a 
troublous time. His great aim was to restore reverence, 
especially in the administration of the Blessed Sacrament. 
The altars had been dragged away from their places, and 
set lengthways in the midst of the chancel or the body of 
the Church. Laud ordered them to be restored to their 

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places and railed in ; and the people, instead of remaining 
in their pews, were to come and kneel at the rails to be 
communicated, as is now universally the custom. Against 
this order, and the Clergy who gave eflfect to it, there were 
constant petitions presented to the House of Commons, 
a sample of one or two of which I proceed to give : — 

"Petition to the House of Commons against their 
Vicar, Ffrancis Worrall, from the Parishioners 
OF East Peckham. 

"The humble Peticion of the Inhabitants of East Peckham, 

in the County of Kent, 
** Sheweth, 

"These ensewing grei vanes in our said parish :— Our Com- 
munion Table is sett upp to the east end of the chancell, close 
to the wall, alterwise, the said table there rayled in, and a new 
wainscott at the east side of the said table made with the picture 
of angells therein carved. 

**He did refuse to administer the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper to one of the inhabitants of the said parish, although in 
decent manner he did desire the same, and offered himselfe in 
the chancell, and all because the said inhabitant would not come 
upp to the rayle to receive the same. „ j , j , , „ 

Here is another and somewhat amusing instance of 
the same kind : — 

"Petition to the House of Commons against their 
Minister for Neglect, and Popish Practices, from 
THE Parishioners of Capel. 

" The principle charges are : — 

" ist. He is so cerimoniall, that if he come out of the railes 

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48 Ci)e SartKj^ Xlegtdtertf. 

(that is to administer to people in their pews) he saith he should 
offend God. 

*' 2nd. He did dismiss some five or six of us when we presented 
ourselves on our knees in the chansell to receive the sachrament, 
because we did not come to the raiels, wheare he doth cringe 
and bowe. 

** 3rd. He sales that if he be ever so far from his text, yet if 
he keepe but talkinge one, it will serve our turns. 

'' 4th. He sales that if ever the Scots go to heaven, the divell 
will goe toe. 

" 5th. He sales there is more hope of a Papist than there is 
of a Puritant." 

In another Petition against the Rector of Horsmonden 
the parishioners complain that : — 

" Our Communion Table is removed upp into the wall at the 
east end of the chancell and compassed about with waynscott, 
and upon the said wall is written these words : ' Wee have an 
altar whereof they have no right to eate which serve the 
Tabernacle.' " 

The inhabitants of Chatham complain to Parliament 
that their Curate : — 

" Thomas Vahan, preist, (for so he saith he is) and with much 
greife wee utter it, is a man superstitiously affected in urging and 
pressing of ceremonies in his pulpit teaching, not only making 
them things indifferent, but pressing them to be things of necessity 
to bind the consciences of his hearers under a bitter curse. 

" He hath laboured, these two yeares and more, to sett the 
Communion Table altar-wise, rayled about, giving his reasons out 
of the pulpitt, for the decensie of it, complaining how hee is 

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abased in administering the Sacrament, going from pew to pew, 
as one that dealeth almes, or a doale to the people. 

"The soundness of his teaching may easily be gathered by 
what is expressed, who is much wearied in the paines of his 
ministrie, as he hath in the pulpit often delivered, seldome 
preaching was that hee looked for, by an order (as he saith) from 
authoritie, but blessed be God for that miraculous worke in 
preventing of it ; hee being urged by the Apostle's words, that 
his dutie did consist in preaching, and to bee instant in season 
and out of season, * In season,' he saith, is, to preach upon 
Sundaies in the forenoones, and, *out of season,' in the afternoones." 

A Petition against the Vicar of Tunbridge, charges 
him with being : — 

** A great Innovator, having introduced into the worship of 
God many Innovations, as namely, — turned the Communion 
Table altar-wise, rayled it in, made cherubims of carved worke 
over it, and a picture of a dove over the ffront ; that he commonly 
boweth himselfe unto the altar, and at the name Jesus, and 
enjoynes his parishioners to come up to the railes to receive the 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper ; by meanes of which innovations 
divers of the best minded families in the said parish have removed 
theire dwellings into other parishes, and some gone out of the 

The above extracts, chosen from many others of a 
similar character, will suffice to indicate how entirely 
the authority of the Church and of the Archbishop was 
ignored by the puritanical faction, and the people en- 
couraged to appeal to a Parliament, largely composed 
of Presbyterians, against the Spiritualty. The result 

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50 Ci)e Pari^i) Saegtsltertf. 

naturally was the utter confusion which prevailed a little 
later on, when the King and the Archbishop were 
beheaded, the clergy driven from their posts, and every- 
body did what was right in his own eyes. 

The following extract from the Parish Register, dated 
Sept. 2oth, 1653, indicates an important change in the 
ecclesiastical government of Folkestone : — 

"The twentieth day of September Anno Dm. 1653, the inhabit- 
ants and householders of the towne and parish of Ffolkestone in 
the County of Kent, according to the Act of Parliament, in that 
case appointed, did make choyse of John Angell, Parish Clarke 
there, to be parish Registrar of Ffolkestone. 

Hen : Jenkin Maior." 

From this time forth we fail to find the signature of 
Peter Rogers, or any other Vicar. A Register of Births 
is substituted for that of Baptisms, which, together with 
the entries of Marriages and Funerals, is signed by ** John 
Angell, Parish Clarke." During this interregnum, which 
lasted till the Restoration of Charles II., A.D. 1662, 
Folkestone seems to have been without a duly ordained 
parish priest. There is no record of any children being 
baptized, with one remarkable exception. Glancing over 
the Register of Births, we notice a roughly sketched hand, 
with a finger pointing to the following entry written in 
very large characters : — 

" William sonne of William Russell, Minister of the 
Gospell, and Mary his wife, was borne June 24th and 
baptized July 1st 1655." 

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This William Russell, who was so careful to see to the 
baptism of his own child, was evidently one of the two 
Puritan preachers thrust into the living from which Peter 
Rogers, the lawful parish priest, had been ejected ; for, 
turning to the title page of the Register Book, we find 
inserted in the midst of a list of the Vicars of Folkestone 
dating from 1601, and surrounded by a rough line, the 
following : — 

In the time of the Usurper, William 
Russell & John Baker. 

Who was responsible for the burial of the dead during 
this interval we have no means of ascertaining, seeing 
that the only signatures attached to the list of burials is 
that of John Angell. Turning to the Marriage Register 
of the same period, we learn that the weddings were 
performed either by the Mayor, or one of the Magistrates, 
or one of the J urates. To give one example, I extract 
the entry of the Marriage of this same John Angell, the 
parish clerk, who accepted, as we have seen, the post of 
Registrar : — 

^^John Angell &* Joane Chart were publight three severall 
Lords dayes according to the Act of Parliament^ and weare 
married by Mr, James Acter one of the Justices of the town 
of Hyeithy in the said County of Kent, and in the presence 
of Thomas Pizing dr* Richard Gresely, Witnesses, Aprill 
y^ 30 day 1656." 

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Collections of Alms by Briefs. 

It is evident from several collections of Alms recorded 
in the same Register Book, that the charity of the good 
people of Folkestone, two centuries ago, did not end at 
home, if it began there. We find for instance the 
following record : — 

"July the 30th 1653. Collected at Ffolkestone towards the 
relief of the Inhabitants of the towne of Malboro according to 
the tenor of the brief as following . . ." 

• • « • • 

Then come two columns of names of contributors 
commencing with the Mayor, Thomas Smith, who gives 
5s. Soon the contributors descend to giving pence ; and 
Widow Fullard multiplies her mite by four and contributes 
one halfpenny. The collection amounted to ^^3 is. lod. 
It was customary in those days to issue " Briefs,*' as they 
were termed, calling upon the Clergy to make collections 
in their Churches and parishes towards special objects of 
general interest. These Briefs are referred to in the 
rubric preceding the Offertory Sentences. Another 
instance of a Collection by Briefs is one made "toward 
the helpe of the Slaves in Algiers " for whom the sum of 
seventeen shillings and three pence was collected. These 
poor slaves were English people, who had been taken 
captive by the Algerian Pirates, and the Collection was 
towards their redemption.* 

* Cutis in his Dictionary of the Church of England, fol. 96, mentions 
this fact. 

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There is another collection of alms recorded, dated 
May 6th, 1686, " for the relief of Ffrench Protestants," 
who, to the number of about fifty thousand, Hume tells 
us, sought refuge in this country after Lewis the XIV. 
had revoked the edict of Nantes. The collection amounted 
to " Four pounds eleven shillings and a penny." 

*' Gervase Needham, Fellow of Emmanuel College," was 
Vicar of Folkestone at the time of the Revolution in 1688, 
when James II., after the trial of the seven Bishops, and after 
his abortive attempt to re-introduce Popery, deserted his 
throne and country. Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and five other prelates, together with about four hundred 
clergy, conscientiously objected to take the oath of allegi- 
ance to William of Orange, and either resigned or were 
deprived of their preferment. It would appear that 
Gervase Needham was among these Non-jurors, for we 
find the word " Resigned 1689 " against his name in 
the Register Book. 

Appropriation of Seats. 

The inhabitants of Folkestone in the seventeenth cen- 
tury evidently considered that it was within their province 
to appropriate seats in the Church, for we find the follow- 
ing record of a Vestry Meeting, dated Easter Tuesday, 
1694 :— 

"These are to certifie whom it may at present or hereafter 
concerne, that one pew next adjoyning to the Reading pew on 
its East Side was by the consent of the inhabitants of the towne 
& parish of Ffolkstone,at a meeting of the said parishioners, ordered 

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54 Ci)t iBigfytnnt^ Century. 

to bee enlarged at the Parish Charge & the said pew soe enlarged 
by the said parishioners in the behalf of themselves & their suc- 
cessores, soe far as in them lyee, appropriated for ever for the use of 
the Govenour or Deputie Govenour of Sandgate Castle & their 
respective families liveing in the said parish of Ffolkstone. And 
for the use of the Minister of Ffolkstone for the time being & his 
familie for ever, & for the use of noe other person." 

The above is signed by " John Bradock, Curate ; 
John Rae, Churchwarden ; Thomas Nickalls, Major ; 
and several others." 

€i)e <tti)urci) in ti)e (Si^f^mntfi (ffentttrg. 

A great disaster overtook our Parish Church at the 
beginning of the next century. On Dec. 19th, 1705, a 
storm of unusual fury visited the south coast, and the 
nave of the Church to the extent of two arches was 
blown down. The parishioners petitioned Archbishop 
Tenison to give them leave, in re-building the nave, to 
reduce its dimensions by the omission of one of the fallen 
arches. They urged that the Church was larger than 
their requirements necessitated, and that 

" In all probability the clift on which it was built, constantly 
falling away and the sea gaining ground, within fifty years or less, 
the whole building will be utterly cast down and destoyed."* 

Their petition was granted May 20th, 1706. Happily, 

* Dr. Ducane's Repertory of the Endowments of Vicarages in the 
Diocese of Canterbury, 1782. 

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CJbe Gtg()teentl^ Century. 55 

however, their prognostications have proved unfounded, 
and the Church stands firm in its restored completeness, 
no fears being now entertained of its destruction by the sea. 

It is impossible to describe the style of architecture 
with which the nave was rebuilt. Fortunately, I am 
able to give an illustration from a photograph in my pos- 
session, taken just before the work of restoration was 

It is scarcely possible to conceive a more deplorable 
state than that into which the Church fell, before its 
restoration was begun in 1856. Its interior arrangements 
were quite in keeping with the barn-like appearance pre- 
sented in the above picture. It was heavily galleried on all 
sides. There were galleries all around the nave, galleries in 
both transepts, and a gallery ran along the whole length 
of that which is now the Ladye Chapel. A flat, domestic 
ceiling hid from view the ancient oak timbers and king- 
posts of the chancel. Several windows were blocked up, 
amongst others the ancient vesica window surmounting 
the three elegant lancet lights of the east wall of the 
chancel. The muUions of all the windows had been 
destroyed, and replaced by wooden frames. The seats 
were high and multiform. Those in the chancel were 
arranged in two rows, so that the congregation sat with 
their backs to the Altar, and the sittings were let by the 
Earl of Radnor, the lay impropriator, at an annual rental. 
The Altar itself was on a level with the floor of the chancel, 
and was almost hidden from view by the high, cumbrous 
rails. It was covered by a flowing blue cloth, and it was 

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56 Cfte Ctgftteent]^ Ctntnvp. 

the boast of the Churchwarden of that day, that he had 
carefully selected it because it was the " real conservative 
colour." As to the rest, whitewash and plaster was the 
order of the day. The Church was entirely devoid of 
colour, either on wall or in window, and even the ancient 
piers of the tower were defaced by hatpegs, and by large 
black-boards, on which were inscribed in gold letters the 
particulars of various charitable bequests. The pews 
were appropriated to a limited number of families, to the 
exclusion of the poor, and in some instances a claim to 
the exclusive right to them was maintained by the aid of 
lock and key. As to the Services, the less said, perhaps, 
the better. They were few and far between, and of that 
dull and slovenly type which has been aptly described 
as "parson and clerk duet." So things continued in 
Folkestone till past the middle of the present century, 
when the great religious Revival, to which, under the 
blessing of God, we owe so much, began to make itself 
felt in Folkestone, as it has also done in so many other 

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(A.D. 1856 TO 1892.) 

jN estimating the results of the great Church 
Revival of our time, we cannot overlook the 
really wonderful changes which have, nearly 
everywhere, been wrought in the fabrics of our Churches,^ 
and in their adaptation to a higher type of service and 
worship than that which previously prevailed. Of such 
a changed condition of things Folkestone Church affords 
a pre-eminent example. 

It was in 1856 that the first serious movement was made 
to bring our Parish Church into something like harmony 
with the newly infused life of the English Church. It was 
proposed in the first instance to undo the badly done work 
of the year 1706, to rebuild the nave on the original lines, 
and restore the lost arch, to extend the north transept and 
add a north aisle to the nave, and at the same time to 
remove the cumbrous galleries. An anonymous donor 
placed 3^500 in my hands towards this object, and con- 
tributions began to flow in from various quarters. But 

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58 €buxcf) Slentoratton. 

the way was not to be so easily made smooth. Three 
objections were raised to the suggested restoration of the 
Church. Some persons were quite contented with things 
as they were, and did not care to be disturbed from their 
lethargy. " What was good enough for their fathers," 
they said, "was good enough for them." Then there 
were those who objected to any enlargement of the 
Church which necessitated an interference with the re- 
mains of the departed; and thirdly there was the still 
more serious opposition from those who raised the silly, 
but not less formidable cry of " no popery." By the 
aid of a faculty, however, the difficulties were surmounted, 
and in 1859 ^^^^ first instalment of Church Restoration 
became an accomplished fact. The subjoined sketch 
from a photograph will show the change which was 
then effected. 

But the chancel had not yet been restored, and the 
interior of the Church still presented a deplorable 

The work of Restoration was re-commenced in 1868. 
The Earl of Radnor, as lay Impropriator, then undertook 
the restoring the chancel. The old timbers of the roof 
were brought to light again, and the blocked-up vesica 
window was re-opened. 

The south chancel aisle and south transept were also 
rebuilt, and another aisle was afterwards added to the 
Nave in memory of Dr. Harvey. 

The very plain four-light west window, which had been 
designed by Mr. Hussey with a view of admitting a 

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gallery at the west end, now gave way to the present large 
western light with its rich tracery, designed by Mr. 
Stallwood, and filled with painted glass by Mr. Kempe, 
in memory of the great discoverer of the circulation of 
the blood. A full description of the subjects portrayed 
in this window will be given later on. 


It would be tedious to give details of the successive 
restorations and enlargements which the Church under- 
went, and the gradual introduction of artistic adornments 
in both windows and on walls. I will only further add 

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6o Ci)utcb ifte^toratton. 

that the beautiful and costly arcading of alabaster, 
including the mosaics of the twelve Apostles, all which 
are memorials or thank-offerings to the Church, were 
added in 1885. By degrees all the twenty-nine windows 
in the Church have been filled with painted glass, chiefly 
the work of Mr. Kempe or Mr. Hemming, to which latter 
gentleman we also owe the " Stations of the Cross," and 
some of the other sacred and historical pictures which 
now cover the once bare walls.* Truly it may be said that 
the prediction of the Prophet Haggai has been fulfilled in 
respect to this House of God — ** The glory of this latter 
house shall be greater than of the former." The following 
illustrations of the change wrought in the interior of the 
Church will be of interest. 

*A list of the various presents to the Church, including memorial 
windows and pictures, will be found at the end of the book. 

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PART 11. 

Wmtiption ot ti)t interior ot fi)t 

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:;' Th»v, 9^n^ V * JS^Jk^'^lL^tik^,. ' r» 

1; . 

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l!9e$crtpttott of ti^e Unttviov of ti^e 

[E shall now be prepared for a closer inspection 
of the interior of the Church. Let us enter 
by the north west porch and endeavour to 
gather up some of the sacred lessons which address 
themselves to us through the eye. It seems strange that 
prejudice should have armed itself so vigorously against 
religious art, as a means of conveying religious instruction, 
when we recall the fact to which all experience bears 
witness, viz., that, " Things seen," as Tennyson says, 
" are mightier than things heard," but so it is, or rather 
so it has been ; for the neglect of religious art as a hand- 
maid to religion is undoubtedly fast dying out. 

©1)0 i^oitt) asaegt Vorci). 

Before we make our way into the centre of the building, 
let us turn for an instant and notice the inscription on 
the scroll held by three Angels immediately over the 
doorway through which we have just entered — 

"This is the gate of heaven." 

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64 Sticviption of tl)e {ntertot of ti)t Cburcg. 

With hearts thus attuned to the sacred surroundings, 
we shall not pass unheeded the framed invitation affixed 
to one of the pillars immediately in front of us : — 

** Whosoever thou art that enterest into this Church leave it 
not without one prayer to God for thyself, for those who minister 
and those who worship here." 

The call to a moment's silent prayer, before inspecting 
a Church, is in every sense reasonable and fitting. We 
have entered the House of God, dedicated to His honour 
and glory, and consecrated by an almost uninterrupted 
succession of celebrations of the Blessed Sacrament of 
His love, and by the worship of thousands and tens of 
thousands of those whose dust is mingled with the soil of 
the surrounding churchyard. Is it not then in every 
sense " very meet, right, and our bounden duty," that we 
should bend our knees before the Divine Majesty, ere we 
proceed to inspect the various interesting features of His 
Holy Temple ? 

This, as it should be, is the most striking object which 
meets the eye as we pass into the centre of the nave. It 
is the People's Cross, and is so placed that all may see it. 
It tells at once the old, old story of redeeming love. 
I know no words which more clearly and beautifully 
express its raison d'etre than the following lines of 
Dr. Monsell — 

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i9e6cnptton of ti)e Ifntcrior oC a)t Cl)ui'ci). 65 

** Blest sign of our redemption ; I adore 
Not thee, but Him Who did not fear thy pains. 
Who, though in light where the Eternal reigns 
He loved to live, yet loved His people more, 
And therefore thus on thee, their trespass bore. 
I do not owe thee worship, yet I ne'er 
Would join with those who, through some sickly fear 
Of rite idolatrous, on thee would pour 
Scorn and contempt, and level with decay 
God's finger post, that points the narrow way. 
But when I see thee, this poor soul doth bless 
Love's cheering token in the wilderness. 
Recalling ever at the well-known sign. 
Sad thoughts of mortal guilt, glad thoughts of love divine." 

5rf)e dfaU of Man arCtt i)ig (&xp\ilmn ftom 

If now we turn round and look at the two beautiful 
little memorial windows, recently introduced into the west 
wall of the nave, and filled with glass by Mr. Kempe ; the 
one window portraying the ** Fall of Man," and the other the 
" Expulsion from Paradise," our sense of the preciousness 
of those great truths which the Cross of Christ unfolds 
must surely be enhanced. By that on the south side we 
are reminded 

" Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit 
Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste 
Brought death into the world and all our woe. 
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man 
Restore us and regain the blissful seat." 


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66 9e£fcrtpttoii of tt^t intvciot ct tt}t Cl^urcib* 

By the other window, on the north side, we learn the 
exceeding sinfulness of sin and its awful consequences in 
the alienation and separation of man from His Maker, 
and the impossibility of his return till the flaming sword 
be sheathed, and God Himself shall open up a " new and 
living way,'* through the Incarnation, "that His banished 
be not expelled from Him." 

Cfie annunciatiott. 

Again we turn round and look eastward, and above the 
Holy Rood is a picture by Mr. Kempe, illustrating that 
wondrous story which artists have ever delighted to depict, 
the visit of the Angel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
and the announcement to her of that fundamental truth 
of our religion, the Incarnation of the Son of God. On 
the scroll borne by the angel we read the well-known 
salutation '* Ave Maria," and on Mary's scroll, her meek 
acquiescence in the Divine Will is expressed in the 
words, '* EccE Ancilla Domini." 

Glancing across the nave we catch sight of the Jesse 
Tree, on the east wall of the North Transept. The 
subject is not unusual in painted glass; but rare as a 
wall-painting. Underneath the recumbent figure of Jesse 
is the text, quoted from Isaiah xi. i : " There shall 


It was of course only possible to select a limited 

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fieclcriptton of ti)r ftitertor oC tl^e C|)utc]^. 67 

number of the progenitors of St. Joseph, the supposed 
husband of the Blessed Virgin, whose genealogy is traced 
by St. Matthew. There are seventeen figures in the 
picture, and a key to the names of those selected will be 
found hangmg up in the transept. The figure of the 
Virgin and Holy Child appropriately crown the Arch, 
and angels beneath display the scroll on which is inscribed 
" Of whom was born Jesus Who is called Christ." 

The Holy Incarnation, made known to the Blessed 
Virgin by the Archangel, is here represented in the Jesse 
Tree as an accomplished fact. 

Before we pass through the Brazen Gates, enclosing 
on both sides the Clergy and Choir stalls, and stand 
beneath the fifteenth century tower, we notice a small 
brass Lectern with overhanging lamp. This is a memorial 
to " Eleanor Utterton," widow of the late Bishop of 
Guildford, who spent the closing years of her life at 
Folkestone. Beneath the tower, are the Clergy and Choir 
stalls, and also the beautifully carved oak Fald-Stool and 
the massive brass Lectern. Overhead, a Choir of Angels 
has been appropriately represented, with instruments of 

Ei)e ©reat aii)anreU 

We now enter the oldest part of the Church. All the 
rest, with the exception of the Tower and the Ladye 
Chapel, have been rebuilt within the last half century. 

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68 9e£fcriptu)n of ti)e interior of ti)e C|)ur(]^. 

It is unnecessary to repeat what has already been said 
regarding this Chancel on page i8. We notice, however, 
that the ancient ragstone columns have no bases. This 
of course is unprecedented, and at once suggests the 
inference that the floor of the chancel must once have 
been on a lower level than the other portions of the 
Church. This idea was confirmed a few years ago when 
the present tiles were being laid down. Upon digging 
round one of the small columns to a depth of two and a 
half feet the base of the pillar was discovered, and at the 
same time portions of the old tiles, with which the 
chancel had in former times been paved, were brought to 
light. Also a part of the old oak seating referred to on 
page 26 was dug up. It is perhaps needless to say that 
these relics of the past have been carefully preserved. 

The three lancet lights have been filled with subjects 
by Mr. Kempe, in his own unique style of colouring. 
They have replaced three very inferior painted windows 
representing " Faith, Hope, and Charity," which had 
been put in before the art of painting on glass had been 
revived. In the centre light we have the Crucifixion, with 
Mary Magdalene at the foot of the Cross. On the north 
side, the Blessed Virgin is represented in a bending 
posture, and St. Augustine is introduced kneeling. On 
the other side we have the figure of St. John, and together 
with this is the kneeling figure of St. Eanswythe. Sur- 

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J^iTiihilimi iif tf>e fnteri or of tjhe €^\xrc^. 69 


{ '': t. 

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Sticviftion of t^t fntenor of t^t Ci^urc]^. 69 

mounting these three lights is the restored Vesica 
window, the glass of which is by Messrs. Clayton and 
Bell, and the subject appropriately depicted is what is 
generally termed " The Majesty " — our Lord in glory, 
surrounded by His angels, lifting His hand in Benediction, 
The four lancet windows in the north and south walls 
contain representations of the Annunciation, the Incarna- 
tion, the Epiphany, and the Purification. The Reredos 
and Alabaster Arcades are all richly carved, and give 
dignity to the High Altar of our Lord. The Mosaics of 
the twelve Apostles, inserted in the Arcades, are all 
Memorial gifts, as also is the beautiful Mosaic representing 
censing angels, in the centre of the Reredos. They are by 
Cappello, a pupil of Salviati. 

On either side, close to the beautiful altar rails, which 
have also been presented "in Memoriam," are two 
Aumbreys with the ancient doors restored. And on the 
north side, immediately under the figure of St. Peter, is a 
square brass door which encloses the remains of the 
Patron Saint of Folkestone. 

The discovery of the remains of St. Eanswythe on 
June 17th (St. Alban's Day) was a matter of no little 
antiquarian, as well as ecclesiastical, interest. Workmen 
were preparing the wall of the Sanctuary for its Alabaster 
lining, when they came upon an old and much decayed 
leaden Coffer, in which were a number of bones evidently 
gathered together from some larger receptacle in which 

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Setfcrtptton of tl^e {ntrrtor of ti)e Ci)ttrc^. 

the body had been originally interred. Upon being 
apprised of the discovery, and after a careful inspection of 
the Reliquary, I at once divined that it must be that of St. 
Eanswythe, of the existence of whose relics, in some part 
of the Church, tradition had already informed us. I at 
once communicated the interesting fact to the Honorary 
Secretary of the Kent Archaeological Society and also to 
Canon Jenkins, both of whom paid an early visit to the 
spot, and fully confirmed the opinion formed. A photo- 
graph was taken, before the Reliquary was restored to 
its place, of which the picture below is an exact copy. 

The following account, by the Rev. Canon W. A. Scott 
Robertson, of this very interesting discovery, connecting. 

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Seielcrtptton of t^t (ittenor of tl^e Cf^wcc^. 71 

as it does, this Church with the early history of the re- 
conversion of Kent, is found in the Archaologia Cantiana^ 
and I am permitted to make use of it here : — 

"In the spring of 1885 the Vicar of Folkestone commenced 
the decorative work of encrusting the walls of the sacrarium with 
rich arcading in alabaster. When, for this purpose, masons 
removed the plaster from the surface of the wall beneath this 
niche, they found that it occupied the centre of a large arched 
space (probably round-headed), which, having originally been open 
to the chancel, had at some period been filled in with rough masonry. 
The voussoirs of the arch were gone. A slab of stone, 4ft. long and 
2ft. broad, formed the base of this arched opening, which I should 
call a founder^s tomb, used, probably, as an Easter sepulchre. 

"Beneath the large stone slab which formed the altar-like top of the 
tomb, and would be used as the base of the Easter sepulchre, the 
masons laid bare a cavity within which stood the Reliquary. It isabout 
14 inches long, 9 inches wide, and 8 inches high, without its cover. 

" The outer surface of this leaden coffer is ornamented, like 
that of Gundrada de Warenne (daughter of Queen Matilda), who 
died in a.d. 1085, with large open lozenges in relief. In these 
lozenges each side is about 3 inches long, and is formed of dots* 
nine or eleven in number, and each of them lozenge-shaped. 
Near the top of the coffer the lozenge pattern is crossed by a 
horizontal line of similar dots. Of the bottom of the cofifer very 
little was left ; it had decayed away under chemical action. 

" The lead used as a cover for the coffer was not fitted to it, 
but was a rough fragment taken from some other vessel. It had 
probably formed part of a Roman coffin. This I gather from the 
fact that, upon its under side, this cover has at one end five parallel 
mouldings in high relief, resembling cords or small cables. Similar 

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72 SeiElcriptum ot t^t inUtiot ot (l)t C]&urd>. 

mouldings in lead I have seen on Roman leaden coffins, and 
on nothing else. The only other mark upon the cover is 
formed of two simple straight lines, which meet and form a very 
obtuse angle. 

" Within this coffer were heaped together many bones of a 
young woman. I found amongst them nearly the whole of one 
jawbone (shewn in the woodcut at an angle of the coffer), with 
two double- teeth still firmly fixed in the jaw. Three other teeth 
which I found loose among the bones were sound and little worn. 
One of them had, all over it, a dark pink tinge, for which I 
cannot account. Portions of the skull, arms, hands, ribs, legs, 
and feet could be recognised, but much had been pulverised. 
On the surface of the bones there was a beautiful hue of deep 
crimson-like purple, and a formation of minute crystals which 
sparkled brightly. 

" This reliquary and all its contents have been most carefully 
guarded and preserved by the Rev. Matthew Woodward, Vicar of 
Folkestone, who at once caused a large glass case to be made and 
placed over the whole ; nor would he suffer the bones to be 
disturbed until the Secretary of the Kent Archaeological Society 
came to examine them. 

" The position in which the reliquary was discovered is that of 
highest honour, occasionally accorded to the founder, or to some 
very great benefactor of a church. Naturally, it at once occurs 
to us that the bones in the reliquary may be those of the royal 
lady of saintly fame, whom Folkestone has ever delighted 
to honour. 

'*St. Eanswith shares with St. Mary the <ledication of this 
Church. St. Eanswith appeared crowned, upon one ancient seal 
of Folkestone, holding in one hand two fishes strung on a half- 
hoop, and in the other a pastoral staff. St. Eanswith is seen still 

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JBesfm'ptioii of tf)e interior of tf)e ®f)urc]^. 73 

upon Folkestone's Mayoralty seal, with crown, crosier, and book, 
having a fish on each side of her. This daughter of Eadbald, 
King of Kent, was a great benefactress to Folkestone ; here she 
founded a convent, here she lived, and here she died. She 
was but 26 years of age at her death. The teeth in the 
reliquary therefore testify that the bones may well be those of 
St. Eanswith. 

"As she died in the seventh century, on the 31st of August, 
her bones must have been translated if they are found in a coffer 
of the twelftli century, and in a chancel wall of the twelfth or 
thirteenth century. Happily, history distinctly states that they 
were so translated ; and, in his Lives of the Saints^ Alban Butler 
suggests that the 12th of September, on which St. Eanswith's 
anniversary is kept, was the day of her translation. 

"Leland writing in the reign of Henry VHL, says, *They say 
that one paroche chyrch of our Lady and another of St. Paule, ys 
clene destroyed and etin by the se. Hard upon the shore yn a 
place called the Castle yard ... be greate ruines of a solemne 
old nunnery . . . The castle yard hath bene a place of great 
burial ; yn so much as, wher the se hath woren on the banke, 
bones apere half styknyg owt. The paroche chyrch is thereby 
. . . ther is St. Eanswide buried.' 

"Lambarde, writing in the reign of Elizabeth, speaks of * Folke- 
stone, where, a.d. 640, Eanswide, the daughter of Eadbalde, the 
Sonne of Ethelbert, and in order of succession the sixte King of 
Kent, long since erected a religious Pryorie of women, not m the 
place where * St. Peter's Churche at Folkestone nowe standeth, 
but Sonthe, from thence, where the Sea many years agoe hath 

* Lambarde is evidently mistaken in calling the present Church (the only 
one existing when he wrote) St. Peter's. He must mean the presen^t 
Church of SS. Mary and Eanswythe. 

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74 Seielmptton of (l)t fittmor of (l)t C^utc^. 

swalowed and eaten it. And yet, least you shoulde thinke 
•S/. Peter's Parishe Churche to be voyde of reverence, I must let 
you know [out] of Nora Legenda Anglia that before the sea had 
devoured all, St. Eanswide's reliques were translated thither.' 
Capgrave, in his Nova Legenda^ bears the same testimony. 

" Respecting the dedication of the existing Church, and of the 
Church which was destroyed, Leland and Lambarde are somewhat 
confused. •Hasted unravelled the tangle, and tells, respecting the 
nunnery, *that Eanswithe was buried in the Church of it, dedicated 
to St. Peter and St. Paul . . . This nunnery, being reduced to a 
heap of ruins by the continual ravages of the Danes, lay in that 
state till after the Norman conquest, when Nigell de Muneville in 
1095, founded, on the site of the old Church and nunnery, a new 
priory of monks . . . But not long after this, the depredations of 
the sea had so far wasted the cliff on which the priory stood that 
it became in great danger of falling with it ; which induced Sir 
William de Albrincis, then Lord of Folkestone ... to remove 
the monks, at their petition, to a new Church, which he granted 
to them for that purpose. This Church stood on the site of the 
present Church of Folkestone, at a little distance eastward from 
the castle-bail ... On the south side of the new Church he built 
a new Priory, which with the new Church was dedicated to St. 
Mary and Eanswith, and to which the body of St. Eanswith was 
removed from the old ruinous Church where it then lay.' " 

iSrasss to tlje iEotf)ei: of f^arbes. 

Before we retrace our steps we must notice the Brass 
by the vestry door, to the memory of the mother of 
Doctor Harvey, whose great discovery of the circulation 

♦ Hasted. History of Kent, viii. 180. 

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Seielmptton of tl^e (ntmor of t^t d^urd^. 


of the blood led to such a complete revolution in the 
practice of medicine. The West Window is to the 
Doctor's memory, and will be described in due course. 
The character of Harvey's mother is thus quaintly 
portrayed on the brass plate referred to: — 

A.D : 1605 Nov : 8 DYED in Y 60 Yeere of her age 
A GODLY Harmles Wqman t A chast loveing Wife: 
A charitable Qviet Neighbovr : A cofortable Frendly Matro": 
A Evident Diligent Hvswyfe: A carefvll Tenderharted Mother 
Deere to Her Hvsband : Reverensed of Her Children 
Beloved of her Neighbovrs : Elected of GOD 
Whose Sovle Rest in Heaven : Her Body in this Grave 
To Her a Happy Advantage to Hers an Vnhappy 1x)ss. 

jFnscriptioiiie; on Comtseitones in ti^e (2rf)urcib« 

One or two other inscriptions there are which deserve 
a passing notice, as illustrating the tendency in the 
seventeenth century to make rather light of a matter of 
such deep solemnity, and introduce into inscriptions on 
tombstones, jokes and puns. On a stone slab in the 
chancel, now covered over, and no longer exposed to 
view, is the following inscription : — 

** Here lieth the Body of John Cloke, Sonn of Bassil and Mary 
Cloke, died September ye 28 day, 1675 aged si years. 

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76 JBf^crtpiion ot il)c Jntrrior oi tt)e df^urcf). 

** John is buried here, wrapt up in his cloke, 
Its now become his nights gowne, as its seene 
It is ye selfe same culler blew and greene 
He was a husbandman his Fathers land to till 
Himself he left not out, but did there minds fulfill." 

And on a large black marble slab forming part of the 
pavement of the Ladye Chapel is an inscription, bearing 
the same date as Cloke's tomb, of one, John Prageil, who 
died during the year of his Mayoralty. 

" Underneath this Stone intomb*d doth lye 
The Rep'senter of Maiestie. 
Death is Impartiall, a bold Sergeant He 
T'arrest a Ports man in his Mayoraltie 
A Magistrate upright and truly just 
Once her Chiefe Ruler, also now Turned dust 
But here is his glory, It is but a remove 
From this Frjiill earth, to be enthroned above." 

The Monument of the recumbent Knight and the 
cruel damage which it sustained at the hands of the 
Puritans, has been already described. 

^tmain^ of ariereistors flSlmtrotos. 

As we pass down the chancel, we shall do well to 
glance upwards and notice over the apex of the arches 
traces of small round clerestory windows, which once 
admitted light, when in the thirteenth century, lean-to 

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ISe^cn'pttott of tl^e Interior of tl^e Ci)urcl). 77 

aisles on either side of the great chancel, occupied the 
place of the present chancel aisles of a later date. 

3t. i2Jansto5tf)e'35 tffJjapel. 

The south aisle of the chancel, in the absence of any 
certain dedication, is now distinguished as St. Ean- 
swythe's Chapel. In the south wall of this Chapel is a 
small lancet window which was, till recently, blocked up, 
but is now restored and contains the figure of St. 
Eanswythe with her pastoral staff and fish. The other 
two windows are by a Munich artist, and contain pictures 
of the " Flight into Egypt " and the " Transfiguration." 

iPlctttte of 3t. ®anstoBti)e Jttiiusteriiig 
to ti)e iPoor. 

Between these two windows, on a mahogany panel, is a 
painting representing our patron Saint ministering to the 
wants of the suffering poor. It has been painted, and 
presented to the Church, by our Organist, Mr. Oake. In 
front of the Saxon Convent stands the youthful princess, 
surrounded by her " Sisters." She is doling out relief to 
needy recipients. Foremost amongst these stands an old 
blind sailor, led by a fair-haired Saxon boy. The English 
Channel shows beautifully in the distance, and we also 
get a peep at the white cliffs of Albion. Between the 
more distant and the nearer figures we catch sight of the 
legendary stream, which is said to have made its way up 
hill, and enriched the Convent grounds, obedient to the 

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yS Seielmpttoit of (^t interior of (^t €^wcc^. 

Saint's behest. On the extreme left we notice the graceful 
figure of a Saxon peasant, leading away a child laden with 
the Convent's bounty. A cripple boy is looking eagerly 
towards the donor of the good things, whilst an elderly 
man stands, with outstretched hands, to receive his share 
from the hands of St. Eanswythe. 

JTije f^erTi35on Jttonument. 

At the east end of this Chapel is a costly marble 
monument of the seventeenth century, in memory of the 
Herdson family, who once held the Manor of Folkestone. 

At the base, under the Kneeling Knight, is the following 
acrostic inscription : — 

"In arts and arms — (those two Bellonian twins) 
H ave frendlie mett, and kist each other, viewe 
O ne here insculpt, though dead, such honor wins, 
N ot to be raz*d by tyme*s alternat hewe. 

H is life (th* embleme of transcendent worth) 

£ quiparats the best of noble birth, 

R eligious, prudent, valiant, chaste, and meeke, 

D isdaineing wrong, oppression, or deceipt, 

S uccring the helplesse (who help's succour seek), 

O Id Phgenix-like died, from whose askes sprung 

N oe other than at first was in the first." 

On the opposite, or north side of the great chancel, fenced 
off by an elaborate carved oak screen, is the Ladye Chapel, 

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( 'A ■ ^' 


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StUctiption of ti)e (ntertor of ti^e Cf^mcf). 79 

as it is now designated. A few years ago the Archbishop's 
consent was obtained to its being again used as a Chapel. 
A carved oak altar was presented by Mr. Tattersall, and 
all things requisite to its being properly furnished were 
supplied. It is now used for the daily Eucharist and the 
Mattins' daily Service. The beautiful oak screen by which 
the Chapel is enclosed was designed by Mr. Stallwood, and 
is a Memorial to the late Miss Philips. The east window 
of this Chapel contains a representation of the Blessed 
Virgin and Child, and on either side are the figures of St. 
Michael the Archangel and St. Peter. These two figures 
were chosen to metnoriahze the erection of two daughter 
Churches, which of late years have sprung from the 
Parish Church when more accommodation was urgently 
needed. They bear the respective dedications of St. 
Peter, and St. Michael and All Angels. 

High up, on the north wall of the Ladye Chapel, is a 
memorial window containing the figures of three youthful 
martyrs, St. Alban the proto-English martyr, St. Agnes, 
and St. Faith. The other window, also by Mr. Kempe, 
contains the figures of St. Gabriel, St. Elizabeth and 
St. John Baptist. 

Passing into the north transept we can now take a 
nearer view of the Jesse Tree, and also inspect the 
large transept window by Messrs. Heaton & Co. It 
has in the central light of the upper portion, a repre- 

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8o StUcxiftion of tl^e tntertor of ti^e C^ntt^. 

sentation of our Lord as the Good Shepherd, and on 
either side of Him, two of the Evangelists. Below are 
five scenes in the life of St. Matthew; his Call at 
the receipt of custom, his Ordination, his Preaching 
the Gospel, the Writing of his Gospel and his Martyr- 
dom. This window recalls a period of some little 
religious disquietude in Folkestone, now happily past 
and gone. 

There were sincere and conscientious people who 
dreaded the consequences of the restoration of a ritual 
which was intended to give increased expression to the 
doctrines of the Church. But there was also a goodly 
company of earnest Church people, both parishioners 
and visitors, who brought a patient spirit and an 
enlightened judgment to bear upon all such matters, 
and these gave me their earnest support and encourage- 

The gift of the " Matthew Window " was intended as 
an expression of gratitude for spiritual benefits received 
in the Parish Church, and also as an indirect protest 
against the obstructive course which some persons had 
thought it their duty, at that time, to adopt. The in- 
scription underneath the window runs thus : — 

** To the glory of God, and in grateful recognition of spiritual 
benefits received through the ministrations of the Parish Church 
of St. Mary and St. Eanswythe, Folkestone, some visitors have 
placed this window. Easter, i83o." 

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Mticviftion at tfft inUmv o( tl^e €ffnxc^. 8i 

€fft Stations of ti)e ittross. 

Leaving the transept we again enter the north aisle of 
the nave, and our attention is drawn to Mr. Hemming's 
paintings of a series of scenes in our Lord's Passion. 
These pictures are painted on mahogany panels, affixed 
to the wall, by which means the danger of injury 
from damp is averted. A little reflection will, I think, 
convince every unprejudiced person of the fitness of such 
subjects for the walls of a Christian Church. The Passion 
of our Lord, leading on to the great act of Atonement, is 
the very central truth of our religion ; and there can be 
nothing more essentially evangelical than thus portraying 
the redeeming work of Christ. In Lent, and Passion, and 
Holy Week such pictures ought to be found of special 
value, as a means of deepening in the minds and hearts 
of the worshippers the impression of those vital truths 
which the Church, at those times especially, seeks to 

The chief objection to such representations no doubt 
takes its rise in the fact, firstly, — that they are usually 
found on the walls of foreign Churches not in communion 
with our own, and secondly — that the series of pictures 
designated " The Stations of the Cross," usually embrace 
four subjects which are of very uncertain tradition, and 
have no warrant in any of the Gospel narratives of the 

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82 9ri{mptton of tf)e fntertor of ti^e €hnvc\i. 

The first of these objections we may at once dismiss 
as utterly void of weight, and as based on a principle 
which would deprive us of all religious art, and make our 
Churches as cold and repelling as the barest meeting- 
house in the land. 

The second objection is of a more serious nature ; but 
it is one that can easily be met, by a distinct refusal to 
admit upon the walls of our Churches the four traditional 
pictures. These include a second and third fall of our 
Blessed Lord beneath the weight of His Cross ; a supposed 
meeting with His blessed Mother on the way to Calvary; 
and the story of Veronica, receiving the impression of His 
Sacred Features on a cloth or handkerchief. In none of 
the Gospel narratives are these stories recorded ; and it 
seems to me not only unwarrantable, but dangerous, thus to 
mingle with illustrations of the inspired narrative of the 
Passion, pictorial representations of events which, to say 
the utmost, are very uncertain. It is for this reason these 
four pictures are not found on the walls of Folkestone 
Parish Church. The same course has, I understand, been 
adopted at the Sisters' magnificent Chapel, at Clewer, 
and I venture to hope that this example will be followed 
in every English Church where sacred pictures of our 
Lord's Passion are introduced. To adopt any other 
course is, apart from the danger attending the mingling 
of the certain with the uncertain, only too sure to 
encourage the false charge often made against us, that we 
are imitating Rome. 

Let us now look at these pictures in their due order : — 

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Stictiption of ti)e fntertor of t^e C|)tttc![)« 83 

^' Jeatia ConlremneD to IBratft." 

The artist has cleverly utilized the space which this 
picture occupies by depicting, on the eastern side of the 
wall, Pilate seated on a dais. The Roman Governor has, 
contrary to his own acknowledged sense of justice, and 
notwithstanding the warning words which his wife has 
whispered into his ears, delivered our Lord into the 
hands of His enemies to be crucified. In answer to an 
angry conscience, which betrays itself in his countenance, 
he has asked for water, in which he is washing his hands ; 
thus vainly trying to deceive himself by the idea that 
he is casting his responsibility upon others. Below the 
dais is the sorrowful, but dignified figure of our Lord. 
Fierce-looking men are roughly handling Him, and leading 
Him away to the Cross which awaits Him. 

'^ Jp!8«8 i^erpibeis ti)e ittrojsjs/' 

Our Blessed Lord now starts on the way to Calvary. 
The heavy Cross has been placed on shoulders, torn with 
the scourge. A procession has been formed, and the 
Blessed Virgin and St. John are following. 

*'Je8tia jTalla/' 

This is not recorded in so many words, but that 
the Lord Jesus should have fallen beneath the heavy 
load of the Cross seems a fair inference from the 
fact that, notwithstanding the cruelty with which He 
was being treated by His enemies, they were corn- 

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$4 Be£(mption of tfte fntm'or of tf)e C|)urfl). 

pelled to allow Him some assistance in bearing His 
Cross. SS. Matthew, Mark and Luke all tell us of one 
Simon of Cyrene, who seems accidentally to have met the 
awful procession, ** and him," it is said, " they compelled 
to bear His Cross." St. Luke says ** After Jesus," and 
St. John says "He bearing His Cross went forth." It is 
evident therefore that the soldiers compelled our Blessed 
Saviour to start forth on His dolorous way bearing the 
Cross on His back so lately torn by the scourge; and that 
only when He could go no further (the inference is a 
natural one) but fell to the ground beneath its oppressive 
weight, did they seize upon a countryman whom they 
met, and compel him to render some assistance. 

^^ 3*wion of (ttgreue i)elpa Jejsus to carrg 
ti)e (ttroas/' 

The awful procession moves onward. The Cross has 
again been laid upon our Lord, but He is assisted now 
by Simon the Cyrenian, who has placed his strong arm 
underneath it, and is helping to support its weight. The 
space for this picture being much larger, more characters 
are introduced into this Station than into the others. A 
youth blowing a trumpet heads the procession. Two boys 
are looking back with an expression of sympathy at our 
Lord, Whose countenance betrays anguish and sorrow. 
Behind Him are several persons more or less interested 
in the terrible tragedy which is to follow. One man 
carries the shovel to dig the hole in which the Cross is 

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Sticvi^tion of tfft htttviox of t^t €^\xxc^. 85 

to be placed. The Blessed Virgin and St. John close 
the procession. 

''Jejsus ronjsolea ti)e asaomen of Jerusalem/' 

This picture illustrates the well-known expression of 
sympathy which our Blessed Lord received from the 
women of Jerusalem, many of whom had joined the sad 
procession, and were bewailing the fate which was in 
store for Him. It is founded on the well-known words 
recorded in St. Luke xxiii. 28: "Daughters of Jerusalem 
weep not for Me, but weep for yourselves and your 

'*3egua is S^ttippeti of ?^is ©Garments/' 

The Cross has now been laid upon the ground; but 
before our Lord is stretched upon it to be crucified, He 
is subjected to the further indignity of being stripped 
of His garments. The hammer and nails and instruments 
of His torture are lying on the ground all ready for use, 

''Jesus is i^ailea to ti)e ®rosB/' 

The supreme moment has arrived. Jesus is stretched 
upon the tree of scorn. Soldiers seize upon each hand, 
and, through the tender flesh and sinews, drive the cruel 
nails. As a lamb, He has been led to the slaughter, and 
now " as a sheep before his shearers is dumb so He opens 
not His mouth." Unresisting, uncomplaining. He endures 
the agony of the Cross, despising the shame. 

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86 Stiivciftion of tl)t inttviox ot t^t C^ut^, 

''Jesttss Mm upon t^e Otrosss/' 

" Behold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins 
of the world." 

Who can look unmoved upon this picture ? Jesus our 
Lord is crucified. He bears our sins in His own Body 
on the tree. There is the Blessed Mother, and there 
the beloved disciple, and there also the much-forgiven 
and much-loving Magdalen. The very Centurion with 
solemnized mind and downcast eyes seems to exclaim 
** Surely this was the Son of God." 

The great act of Atonement is made. The typical 
sacrifices of the older dispensation all centre in Him. 
" There remaineth no more sacrifice for sin." The One 
full, perfect and sufficient sacrifice, oblation and satis- 
faction has been offered on the Cross. ^* It is finished." 
The veil of the Temple is rent in twain, and the way into 
the holiest is now open to every penitent sinner who 
comes to God by Him. The flaming sword finds its 
sheath in the wounded side of Jesus. Paradise lost is 
now Paradise regained. 

'^Jejsttjs \» tafeeu ImjUju from tfte ittrojsa/' 

Why should He remain there any longer ? ** Death's 
mightiest powers have done their worst." His life has 
been given up to restore our forfeited lives. Nicodemus 
is here, the timid ruler of the Jews who came to Jesus by 
night ; and Joseph of Arimathea, the disciple who had 
not dared to avouch himself such for fear of the Jews. 

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IBe^crtptton of ti)e Interior of t()e Cf)ur(l)* 87 

They have gained courage now, and have obtained the 
consent of Pilate to remove His sacred Body and lay it 
in its temporary resting place. And St. John and the 
Blessed Mother are here too. And now we come to the 
last solemn scene. 

'*Je!8tt0 is lailr in ti)e ^amt:' 

The signs of suffering on the sacred countenance are 
gone. It is the new tomb in the garden upon which we 
now look — " There laid they Jesus." The Blessed Mother 
is here to see the last, and so too, is St. John. The two 
disciples, no longer timid, are assisting in the last sad 
offices which love can perform. They will not leave the 
spot till the stone is laid to the mouth of the cave. 


We now turn from these scenes in our Lord's Passion, 
to recall some of those divinely instituted means and 
channels, by which the gifts and graces, which Christ 
has purchased for us by His precious Blood, are brought 
home to us and applied to our spiritual necessities. 
He came to counteract the evil consequences of the Fall. 
He came to re-unite us to God by uniting us to Himself; 
and He appointed a Sacramental Channel as the instru- 
ment of this re-union. 

Three of the windows in the south aisle of the Nave 
have been filled with subjects, intended to illustrate the 
more important of these Means of Grace. The two-light 
window, nearest the west wall of this aisle, is called the 

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88 Sticviption of ti)e fnten'or of t^t €^ntc^, 

§t3aptt»mal a^SinlroU). 

It is interesting to note that this window is a Thank- 
offering to the Church by those who have been baptized 
in its Font during the incumbency of the present Vicar. 
This, and the Confirmation window adjoining, are by Mr. 
Hemming. In the upper portion, the Baptism of the 
jailor of Philippi is portrayed. He and " his household " 
were baptized, as we read in Acts xvi. 5. The keys of 
the cells are hanging by his side, and his wife and a 
child in her arms, are represented as awaiting their turn. 

In apostolic times of missionary labour among Jews 
and Heathen, the records of baptisms which have come 
down to us, are necessarily those of adults ; just as in the 
present day, the reports we look for from our missionaries 
in heathen lands concern those who hear the Gospel, believe, 
and are baptized. Little or nothing is of course said 
about the baptism of infants, simply because the work of 
the Missionary is to make known the truth of the Gospel 
to those who are capable of understanding and receiving it. 
That parents, who have themselves been baptized into 
Christ, should desire the same blessing for their children 
follows of necessity, for ** the promise," as St. Peter says, 
" is to you and your children." 

The scene therefore, depicted below, is that of a Baptism 
at a Font, as now administered by a stoled priest, who, as 
our Lord's representative, takes the infant into his arms. 
Between the upper and lower scenes is a scroll bearing 
the legend : ** I acknowledge one baptism for the re- 
mission of sins." 

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Sticviption o( t^t tnttviot of t^t Ci)urc]^. 89 

E\it Confirmation 82ain)rotD« 

Next to the Baptismal, is the Confirmation window ; 
also of special interest, as being the gift of those who 
have been prepared for Confirmation in the Parish 
Church during the incumbency of the present Vicar. 
In the upper parts of the two lights is the scene described 
in the eighth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles. The 
Samaritans, having been converted to the faith by the 
preaching of St. Philip, and news having been sent to 
the college of Apostles in Jerusalem, two of their 
number, St. Peter and St. John, are immediately sent 
to Confirm them. The picture represents two kneeling 
figures, upon whom the Apostles are in the act of 
laying their hands. The verses illustrated read thus : — 
*' When the Apostles which were in Jerusalem heard 
that Samaria had received the Word of God, they sent 
unto them Peter and John, who, when they were come, 
prayed for them that they might receive the Holy 
Ghost." The following words are inscribed on a scroll 
which separates the picture referred to from a picture of 
the Sacramental rite as at present administered. "Then 
laid they their hands on them and they received the 
Holy Ghost." In picturing Confirmation, as now ad- 
ministered, the Bishop is represented seated, and a child 
is kneeling before him, upon whom he imposes his 
hands. The Bishop wears his mitre, the special insignia 
of his Holy Ofiice. This may seem to be an " innova- 
tion," but it is really a " restoration/' and we are glad 
to know that more than one of our English Bishops, 

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90 JStiicviftion ot ti^e fnttnor ot t^t Cj^urcf^. 

and many Anglican Bishops abroad, have seen the desir- 
ableness of restoring this ancient part of the episcopal 

€1)e iEtommunion aSftintioto. 

Eastward of the Confirmation window is the thank- 
offering gift of the Communicants. This window is of a 
typical character, and contains the figures of Abraham 
and Melchizedek in the upper portions of the two lights. 
By the side of the Patriarch is the ram which, substituted 
for Isaac, became the typical sacrifice. The scene 
depicted in the lower portion of this light is the 
preparation for the sacrifice. The wood is laid in 
order and Isaac is kneeling thereon ; Abraham has taken 
the knife in his hand and is prepared to obey the 
divine mandate, when the Angel of the Lord appears, 
and arrests his hand at the supreme moment. Mel- 
chizedek, in the corresponding portion of the other 
light, is holding in his hands the bread, and the chalice 
containing wine. The cake is marked with the sacred 
sign, and on a scroll above is inscribed : " Melchizedek, 
sacerdos Dei altissimi." The scene depicted below is 
that of Abraham receiving a benediction at the hands 
of the "Priest of the Most High God." The Holy Com- 
munion of the Body and Blood of our Lord is thus typically 

The remaining three-light window is a present to the 
Church by those who take delight in the Children's 

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Stficviftion ot (i)t fntmor o{ (i)t Cf^uvc^. 91 

Services ; and was given as a Thankoffering for the 
religious instruction imparted at these services. It is 
another of Mr. Kempe's windows, and is unique in its 
peculiar and very subdued colouring. It suffers, like 
the rest of the windows on the south side, from the 
background of ugly houses, which unfortunately occupy 
a space once devoted to horticulture. In fact, the whole 
space covered by the Vicarage, and the Priory Garden 
houses, was once part of the garden of the old Priory, 
where the former Vicar lived for many years, and is the site 
of the old Priory buildings which attached to the Church. 
The subject of the window is a mystical one. The figure of 
our Lord, with a little child in His arms, is an exact copy 
of a similar window by the same artist, which was sent out 
to Germany in memory of the little child of the Princess 
Alice, which lost its life by falling from a window. 
Children are seen in the foreground, a little boy with 
a rose and a little girl with a lily, singing our Lord's 
praises, and angels with their musical instruments are 
supporting the children's voices. Underneath are three 
interesting pictures of children. — One Old Testament scene 
represents Samuel waiting upon Eli, who is ministering 
before the Altar. The centre picture is that of our Lord 
seated amongst the doctors in the Temple ; and on the 
right, Timothy, as a boy, is learning to read the Holy 

Ci)e ISaptisters« 

Near to the principal entrance of a Church we generally 
find the Font; for by Holy Baptism we enter into the 

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92 9ei{(rtptton of t^e fiiterior of ti)e Ci)ur(b* 

Catholic Church, which is the mystical body of Christ. 
Let us retrace our steps then, and enter the Baptistery, 
enclosed by a floriated iron screen, intended to give special 
honour to the great Sacrament of our initiation into 
the Church of Christ. Mention has already been ms^de 
of this fifteenth century Font, which, it would seem, 
succeeded one of an earlier date, probably the one first 
introduced into the Church at its foundation. This older 
(thirteenth century) Font seems to have been broken, and 
then removed from the Church and built into the Church- 
yard wall. It was discovered when taking down a part 
of the wall in order to build a new Vestry some few years 
ago. The broken parts have been put together again, 
and so reconstructed the font has been placed in the 
Churchyard within the iron rails at the western end of 
the Church. Upon the base is inscribed 

"Old Font, found in the Churchyard Wall, June nth, 1884.*' 

The windows in the Baptistery are also by Mr. Kempe, 
and have been designed to represent the successful 
mission of St. Augustine in this part of England. 
In the north wall is 

Ci)e ©regore asaintioU). 

The Roman pontiff, portrayed in this lancet light, is 
distinguished as one of the four doctors of the Church by 
the bird on the shoulder. It was this Gregory, generally 
termed "the great," who denounced in strong terms 
the title "Universal Bishop," when the patriarch of 

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St^friptton of ti)e ftttrrioi: of t^t Cf^wtcl^. 93 

Constantinople had laid claim to it. His words are : — 

* " Quisquis se universalem Sacerdotem vocat vel vocari 
desiderat in elatione sui, Anti-Christum precurrit, quia superbiendo 
se cseteris praeponit." 

** Whosoever calls himself, or in his pride desires to be called, 
Universal-priest, is a fore-runner of Anti-Christ, because he puts 
himself, overbearingly, before others." 

Beneath the figure of St. Gregory is a beautiful and 
touching picture of his visit to the market-place of Rome. 
Attracted by the appearance of some flaxen-haired British 
youths, chained together and exposed for sale as slaves, he 
enquires concerning their home and lineage. ' Upon being 
informed that they were Angles, Gregory exclaimed, 
(playing upon the word) ** Non Angli sed Angeli.*' His 
own purpose to visit Britain, as a Missionary, being 
frustrated, he sent Augustine in the year 597, who came 
with his forty followers to preach the Gospel to our Saxon 

In the west wall of the Baptistery is a two-light 
window, surmounted bya Rose window containing a picture 
of the Baptism of our Lord. The lancet light on the 
right hand, or north side, has the picture of St. Augustine 
in his robes, wearing his mitre, with crosier in hand. In 
the lower part is a picture of his consecration to office as 
** first Bishop of the Angles *' by the Archbishop of Aries. 

* In Ep. vii. 33, p. 881 ; Paris, 1705. 

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94 9ti{mptton of li)e fntm'ot of tf)t €f)uxcf^. 

In the left-band light is King Ethelbert, crowned, and 
holding the sceptre ; and underneath is the picture of his 
Baptism in the Font of St. Martin's Church, Canterbury, 

From the Baptistery we proceed at once into the Nave 
of the Church, and turn into the western portion of it. 
The two large spaces of wall on either side of the great 
west window have been utilized for the painting of two 
most interesting historical pictures. 

On the south side we have 

3t. atigtiatine ^reacting tefore ([Fti)tltevt. 

This is one of the very beautiful and costly presents 
which our friend Mr. Wilkin, of Summer Hill, Tenterden, 
has, from time to time, made to the Church. And not 
only so; but the example set has not been without its 
influence upon others, who have followed in his steps. 

The inscription underneath runs thus : — 

** King Ethelbert gives audience to St. -Augustine in the 
Isle of Thanet, a.d. 597. 
To THE Glory of God, and as a Gift to His House, 
FROM Arthur and Mary Wilkin, 1891." 

Here we have that eminently sensible and unprejudiced 
Kentish King with his Christian Queen, Bertha, by his 
side. He is listening intently to the earnest exposition 
of gospel truth at the lips of the Roman missionary. 

* " On his way to Britain Augustine and his followers 

♦ Illustrated Notes of English Church History. S.P.C.K. 

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passed through Gaul, and there they heard the news that 
Bertha, the daughter of Charibert, King of Paris, had 
been married to Ethelbert, King of the Jutes in Kent, on 
condition that she should be permitted to continue the 
exercise of the Christian reh'gion in which she had been 
trained; and Luidhard, previously Bishop of Senlis, went 
with her as spiritual adviser. To the Kentish people, 
therefore, the Italian missionaries found their way, 
landing on the Isle of Thanet in the spring of 597. From 
thence they sent their homage to the King at Canter- 
bury, who gave them permission to remain there until 
he decided what course to adopt. He had, of course, 
heard of Christianity from Bertha and Bishop Luidhard, 
but seemed to think that the miracles recorded of 
the Saviour and His followers were attributable to witch- 
craft. For this reason, when he had resolved to give 
audience to Augustine, he declined to meet them in any 
house, but invited them to address him in the open air, 
where he believed the demoniac spells could have no 
potency. On the day appointed, the little band of 
missionaries came before the King and Queen in solemn 
procession. One carried a silver cross, while another 
bore a picture of the Saviour, and as they advanced they 
chanted a Gregorian Litany. The King was much 
impressed by the scene. He listened graciously to the 
speech of Augustine, or rather to the interpreter's transla- 
tion of it, and then gave them liberty to remain where 
they had been staying, offering them hospitality and a 
dwelling-place. He allowed them to preach to such of 

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his people who were willing to listen, but said he could 
not then personally assent to the new and uncertain 
doctrines they proclaimed, seeing that by doing so he 
would have to renounce those which he and his people 
had so long believed, in common with all the Anglian 
tribes. The ultimate acceptance of Christianity by the 
Kentish Court was the result of several conferences 
between Ethelbert and his nobles, who abstained from 
countenancing such a sweeping reformation, until they 
were convinced that it would be more beneficial to them- 
selves and the Kingdom, than their older system of 
worship. The obvious advantage of establishing friendly 
intercourse with the rest of Christendom doubtless affected 
their decision. On Whit-Sunday, 597, Ethelbert and his 
court were baptized. Prior to this, Augustine and his 
followers had shared in the worship and ministrations 
conducted by Bishop Luidhard in the little Church of 
St. Martin, to the east of the city of Canterbury, which 
had been built by the Britons in the time of the Roman 
occupation, and which Queen Bertha had rescued from 
heathen desecration, that she might worthily offer her 
devotions to the Saviour. But when the King accepted 
Christianity, he gave Augustine permission to preach in 
all parts of his dominion, and to rebuild and restore the 
ruined British Churches which abounded in Kent." 

This is the story of the introduction of the Gospel to 
the Jutes, the first of the Anglo-Saxon tribes that invaded 
Britain, and hence the special interest which must attach 
to such a picture in a Kentish Church ; and in one, more- 

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Se0crtpttott of tt)e Intedor of ti^r Ci)ur(I). 97 

over, dedicated to the grand-daughter of King Ethelbert. 
On the opposite, or north wall, we have an equally 
interesting and striking picture : — 

^t. auguisttne anti ti)e iSritisl) iSiisfiopis. 

The following inscription runs underneath : — 

"Saint Augustine holds a Conference with the Celtic 
Bishops on the Banks of the Severn, a.d. 603. 
To THE Glory of God, and as a Thankoffering to His 
House by Catherine and Mary A. P. Ashbridge, 1892." 

The interview is evidently of a stormy character. The 
British Bishops seem dissatisfied and are turning away, 
whilst St. Augustine, seated, is holding up his hand in a 
threatening attitude. What has disturbed the serenity of 
these holy men ? It is nothing less than an ambitious and 
dominant assumption on the one hand, met by an un- 
yielding claim to spiritual independence and freedom on 
the other. 

The Rev. A. H. Hore, in his history of the Church of 
England, gives the following interesting account of the 
interview : — ** Augustine, relying on the authority which 
Gregory thought to give him, sought to come to an 
understanding with the Celtic Bishops, and for this 
object held, in the year 603, two Conferences with them, 
the first at a place known as Augustine's oak, on the 
river Severn. Augustine was narrow-minded and uncon- 
ciliatory, two great faults in a missionary. He at once 
accused them of heresy; he told them they did many 

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things contrary to the Church ; he tried to persuade 
them to practise Christian unity, and then to join him 
in the work of preaching to the Gentiles. This dictatorial 
manner was not a good commencement. The Celtic 
bishops were intractable as Augustine ; but their opposition 
to him arose probably from his being the representative 
of Canterbury and of the hated Saxons rather than the 
representative of the Pope. 

"The first Conference met with no success ; so a second 
was held at which seven bishops and many learned men 
from the monastery of Bangor-Iscoed, under their Abbot, 
Dunawd or Dinooth (as Bede calls him), were present. 
On their way to the Conference they consulted a holy 
hermit as to whether they ought at the bidding of 
Augustine to abandon their traditions. ' If he be a man 
of God,' the hermit replied, 'follow him.' But how 
were they to know this ? * If he did not rise to them,' 
the hermit said, ' he could not be like Christ, meek 
and lowly in heart, and his words should not be 

''Augustine received them sitting. He asked them to 
comply with him on two points : the proper time of 
observing Easter, and the Roman mode of conferring 
Baptism. These points of difference between the Roman 
and Celtic Churches were not with regard to matters of 
doctrine, but of ritual, and arose from the long isolation 
of the Celtic Churches from the rest of Christendom. 
The Celtic Churches, it may be here observed, kept their 
Easter on Sunday, and therefore were not like the Quarto- 

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description of tf^e Interior of tf^e CI)urcl). 99 

Decimans of the second century, who, following the rule 
of the Jewish Passover, kept Easter on the fourteenth 
day, whether it fell on Sunday or not, of the first Jewish 
month. The Council of Nice had decided that Easter 
should always be kept on a Sunday. But since that 
Council the change was (a.d. 458) made according to a 
more perfect astronomical rule, which long afterwards 
prevailed. Of that change, however, the Celtic Churches, 
cut off as they were from the other Churches of Christen- 
dom, were ignorant, and still kept Easter according to 
the Nicene rule. 

'*The difference as to baptism, referred probably to the 
trine immersion of the Romans and the single immersion 
of the Celts. 

" The Celtic Bishops followed the advice of the hermit. 

* If he will not rise to us now,' they said, ' how much 
more would he contemn us, if we were under his sub- 
jection ? ' So they resolved that they would do none of those 
things which Augustine required, nor receive him as their 
Archbishop. Augustine left them with words of warning: 

* If they would not preach the way of life to the English 
nation, they would suffer from them the vengeance of 
death.' These words spoken at random had a terrible 
fulfilment; but not till nine years after Augustine died, 
so that it could not be in any way attributable to him. 
In 613, at the battle of Chester, Ethelfrith, King of 
the Northumbrians, observing the monks of Bangor- 
Iscoed praying for his Welsh enemies, fell upon and 
slew twelve hundred of them." 

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100 Se^criptton of t]^e Intmor of ti^e C^uxc^. 

€f)e Jpibe flrci)6wi)opg. 

To follow consecutively this illustrated history of the 
English Church, it is necessary that we should now return 
to the north Aisle and place ourselves in front of the three- 
light window, in which are figures of three Archbishops, 
and underneath the figures, pictures illustrative of some 
important incident or event in the history of the English 
Church, for which their Episcopate was distinguished. 

At an interval of little more than half a century 
Theodorus, a Greek, was called to the Archiepiscopal 
Chair; and to him we owe, as some think, even more 
than to St. Augustine. Though upwards of sixty years of 
age, he set himself with great energy and perseverance to 
fulfil the onerous duties of his high office. Up to his time, 
England was like a missionary country, with nothing 
more than a mission station here and there. Theodorus 
set to work to divide the country into parishes, and to 
give to each parish its church and its priest. He also 
sought to sub-divide overwhelming dioceses, and increase 
the number of Bishops. His attempt to sub-divide 
the diocese of Northumbria, which extended from the 
Humber to the Firth of Forth, led to the remark- 
able scene depicted in the lower part of his window. 
Wilfrid, the Bishop of York, whom Theodorus found to 
be living in great state, whilst totally unable to compass 
the duties of his enormous diocese, refused to allow a 

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iBe^crtptton of ti)e Interior of tbt C^uxd). loi 

sub-division, and after a vain endeavour on the part of 
Theodorus to bring him to a better mind, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury proceeded to depose him. Wilfrid then 
left the county, and made his way to Rome, and obtained 
from the Pope a mandate requiring Theodorus to re-instate 
him. This, Theodorus positively refused to do ; and the 
threatened pains and penalties for disobedience were 
never attempted to be carried into effect. The Papal 
mandate was regarded as an attempt to encroach upon 
the rights and privileges of the English Church, and 
Wilfrid was thrown into prison for daring to bring it 
over. Soon after this a Council was called at Constanti- 
nople, and Theodorus was summoned by the Pope to 
attend. He however declined to do so, and instead, 
called a Council of the English Bishops. Thus we see, 
in those early days, that the supremacy of the Roman 
Pontiff was not recognized in England. The Patriarch 
of Rome had jurisdiction only where both parties agreed 
to refer a cause to him as arbitrator. His claim to 
interfere absolutely of his own power was not then 

Next to Archbishop Theodorus, we have Ethelred 
depicted in the upper part of the central light. He had 
been educated at St. Augustine's, Canterbury, of which 
Monastery he became a Monk. Upon the death of 
Archbishop Ceolnoth, Ethelred was appointed to 
succeed, and went to Rome for his pallium. But it 

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102 Sticviption of tf^e fntnrtor of % (S^nvci. 

was to a sad condition of things that he returned. 
Canterbury had been twice sacked by the cruel Danes, 
and the Archbishop's palace plundered. The Canons of 
the Cathedral, and the Monks of St. Augustines, had fled, 
and only the poor secular clergy, with their wives and 
families, were left. The Danes were urged to attack the 
Monasteries by the lust of gain, and the cruelties which 
they inflicted on the Christians can scarcely be exagger- 
ated. It is calculated that there were then two hundred 
thousand of them in the land. The prospect was indeed 
a dismal one when Archbishop Ethelred returned to his 
country. Success seemed everywhere to wait on the 
Danish arms. In a.d. 872 they were in possession of 
London, and the Anglo-Saxons, defeated on all sides, 
were flying to a foreign land for protection. Alfred was 
then on the throne, and in a.d. 878 the Royal Standard 
was unfurled in Somersetshire. The Nobles rallied round, 
their King, and troops came flocking in, and Alfred, 
displaying all the great powers of a general, fought, and 
won one of the decisive battles of the world. The victory 
was complete, and the Danes, reduced to despair, were 
prostrate at the victor's feet. The Archbishop was then 
summoned to the Witenagemot, or Parliament, at which the 
King further exhibited the qualities of a great statesman, 
as he had, in battle, those of a consummate general. He 
perceived that the one thing which kept the Anglo- 
Saxons and the Danes apart was the difference in religion, 
and his first stipulation was that the Danes should be 
baptized and become Christians. All who declined were 

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Seicriptton of tf^t Jntmor of t^t €]^urrf). 103 

required to quit tlie country. Guthrum, however, and 
thirty of his nobles expressed a wish to adopt the reh'gion 
of their conqueror ; Alfred's camp was pitched at Aller. 
Thither came Guthrum and his warriors, professing their 
faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. Alfred stood sponsor to 
the Danish King, who received the Sacrament of Baptism 
at the hands of the Archbishop, and was named by 
Alfred, Athelstan. This scene is depicted in the lower 
part of the light. 

3t. an«elm. 

Next to Archbishop Ethelred is the figure of St. 
Anselm. He was the son of a Lombardian noble, and 
was born a.d. 1033 at the beautiful city of Aosta, which 
lies amongst the Alps of Piedmont. Hearing of the 
fame of Lanfranc, Prior of the celebrated Abbey of Bee, 
in Normandy, he placed himself under this celebrated 
teacher. Lanfranc, as is well known, afterwards preceded 
him in the Archbishopric of Canterbury. " Laborare et 
orare," "to labour and to pray," was the motto of the 
Abbey, and the same has been adopted by the ** Church 
of England Working Men's Society." Under Lanfranc, 
however, to labour in study and to pray, was not for- 
gotten, and here Anselm occupied himself with the 
deepest problems of theology and philosophy. In the 
picture underneath we see him in the act of declining to 
accept the Archbishopric at the hands of King Rufus, 
when summoned into the presence of the King, who was 
lying on his sick bed. At Christmas, 1092, the King 

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104 BesJcriptton of t^t fntmor of tt^t C^mi^. 

held his Court at Gloucester, where request was made to 
him that he would allow prayers to be offered in all the 
Churches on behalf of the widowed see of Canterbury, 
which the King had kept for a long time vacant, shame- 
fully appropriating the revenues to his own purposes. 
Was ever a stranger request made, yet the King after a 
momentary outburst of anger acceded to it. After a 
time, one of his Nobles, conversing with him familiarly, 
spoke of the Abbot of Bee as the noblest man he had 
ever known, and one who loved God with all his heart, 
and desired nothing transitory. "What," said Rufus, 
with a sneer, " not even the Archbishopric ? " " No, 
not even the Archbishopric ; of this I am certain." " If 
he thought," rejoined the King, " that he had the smallest 
chance of it would he not dance and clap his hands as he 
rushed to embrace it ? But, by the Holy Face of Lucca, 
neither he nor anyone dse shall be Archbishop but 
myself." A serious illness, however, befel the King, 
and filled his mind with recollections of his evil doing. 
Anselm was sent for to act as a physician to his troubled 
soul, and he received the royal confession. When the 
King came to appomt to the Archbishopric he naturally 
fixed upon Anselm, whom he knew to be the choice of the 
worthiest of his Nobles and Clergy. When the King's 
will was announced to Anselm, and the Bishops went to 
conduct him to the royal presence to receive investiture, 
by the delivery, at the King's hand, of the Pastoral Staff, 
he absolutely refused to accompany them. The Bishops 
took him aside, and remonstrated with him. Still he 

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StUtviption of tf^e hitniox of ^t €^mc^, 105 

refused. Then they laid loving hands upon him, and 
dragged him into the sick King's chamber. Falling at 
Anselm's feet, they besought him to comply with the 
King's desire. He, in his turn, bent his knees, and 
implored them to accept his refusal. Nobles and Clergy 
waxed angry with him, and it was only by the use of 
absolute force that they succeeded in thrusting the 
Pastoral Staff into his reluctant fingers. Then the 
Bishops and Priests raised the exultant notes of the 
" Te Deum," and the excited crowd outside joined in, 
with shouts of " Long live the Bishop ! " 

The other window in the north aisle has two lights 
only, and has for its subjects two martyr-bishops, St. 
Thomas d Becket and Archbishop Laud. 

The story of the Archbishop disputing with Henry H. 
and his tragic death, is well known. In giving a descrip- 
tion of the window in which he is memorialized, I have 
extracted from Adams' " Great English Churchmen," 
the following account of his martyrdom, which is pictured 
in the lower part of the window. 

"In 1162, the King determined that Becket should be 
Archbishop ; but Becket, well knowing the King's 
character, objected that, as Archbishop, he would surely 
come into collision with his sovereign : but the King was 
determined, and Becket who was then only in Deacon's 
orders, withdrew his refusal to accept the Archbishopric. 
On Whitsunday he was admitted to Priest's orders, and 

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soon after he was consecrated to the Archbishopric. We 
now enter upon the second stage of Becket's career : 
He hastened to resign his office of Chancellor that he 
might give himself wholly to the duties of the primacy. 
We must henceforth look upon Henry and the Archbishop 
as the leaders of two hostile factions, the respective watch- 
words of which, were *the Crown' and *the Church.' 
It was a contest against Caesarism ; a contest against the 
deliberate design of Henry to monopolize all power, all 
influence, all law, all order ; for it must be remembered 
that Henry did not seek the reform, but the robbery and 
humiliation of the Church. And therefore, as Macaulay 
observes, it was a national, as well as a religious feeling, 
which afterwards drew such multitudes to the shrine of 
Becket at Canterbury. 

"What immediately led to the death of the Archbishop 
is well known. The King was exceedingly annoyed, and 
in a moment of intense irritation exclaimed, * Will no 
one deliver me from the insults of this low-born and 
turbulent Priest ? ' These fatal words fell upon the ears 
of four men — Reginald Fitzurse, Hugh de Moreville, 
William de Tracy, and Richard le Brez, who rejoiced at 
the opportunity of doing their master a service. Hurrying 
to the coast, and embarking at different ports, they crossed 
the Channel next day, and repaired to Ranulf de Broc's 
castle, of Saltwood, where they spent the night in 
arranging the details of their murderous project. On 
the morning of the 29th they rode to Canterbury, bent 
upon their cruel errand. It was getting dark when they 

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entered the Cathedral, and laying hold of a monk^ 
Fitzurse demanded, 'Where is Thomas Becket, traitor 
to the King ? ' ' Here am I,' answered Becket, calmly ; 
*No traitor, but a Priest of God. What do you want 
of me ? ' At this the murderers recoiled a pace, and 
one of them with a momentary compunction exclaimed, 
'Flee! thou art a dead man!' 'Far be it from me,' 
he said, 'to flee at the sight of your swords.' And, 
descending from the step on which he stood, he placed 
himself with his back against a pillar that then rose near 
St. Benedict's Chapel. The Knights drew round him, 
shouting, * Absolve the Bishops whom you have excom- 
municated.' ' I cannot do otherwise than I have done,' 
he answered. * Reginald,' he continued, ' you have 
received many favours at my hands ; why come you into 
my Church armed ? ' Fitzurse, striking him in the 
breast with his axe, or hatchet, cried, * You shall die ; I 
will tear out your heart ! ' 'I am ready to die,' said 
Becket, ' that the Church, through my blood, may obtain 
peace and freedom ; but I forbid you, in the name of 
God, to injure these my attendants, whether clerks or 
laymen.' Fitzurse, brandishing his sword, cried, 'Strike! 
strike ! ' and dashed off the Archbishop's cap. He bowed 
his neck ; he clasped his hands over his eyes, and mur- 
mured, ' I commend my cause, and the cause of the 
Church, to God, to the Holy Virgin Mary, and the blessed 
martyr, St. Denys of France.' Tracy's sword flashed 
through the air. Though the blow was intercepted by 
the uplifted arm of the faithful and heroic Grim, it was 

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delivered with such fury, that, after almost severing the 
monk's arm, it fell upon Becket's bare head, 'shaving 
off the top of the sacred crown (the tonsure) by which 
he had dedicated himself to God.' Grim, confused and 
disabled, fled to the nearest altar, where other wan-faced, 
trembling priests and monks had already taken refuge. 
Fitzurse, in his turn, dealt a heavy stroke ; another from 
Tracy felled the Archbishop to his knees. In falling, he 
raised his hands instinctively as if to cover his head, and 
cried, * Into Thy hand, O Lord, I commend my spirit ! ' 

" In the actual murder, Hugh de Moreville, the most 
ferocious of the four, had taken no part, contenting 
himself with guarding the doors, lest any rescue should 
be attempted. When the dreadful deed was done, he, 
with the others hurried out of the Cathedral, and across 
the cloisters, shouting the English war cry, ' King's 
men ! King's men 1 ' That same night, Canterbury was 
sorely shaken by a terrible storm of rain and thunder, 
and the Cathedral towers were shrouded in a darkness 
that might be felt. On the following day, the body, 
newly attired in full pontificals, was placed in a marble 
sarcophagus which stood in the ancient crypt, behind the 
Virgin's shrine, and between the altars of St. Augustine 
and St. John Baptist. No public funeral was permitted ; 
and no mass was said, for armed men having entered the 
Cathedral it was regarded as desecrated ; the bells were 
silent ; the altars were stripped, and the crucifixes veiled ; 
and the services were conducted in the chapter house, 
without the aid of music." 

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Sticviption of tf^e fnttviox of t^e €^uxd). 109 

arci)ti«f)op ILaulr. 

Passing through the Reformation period we now come 
to a very prominent figure in the Church of England, 
at a stormy and difficult epoch in her history. The 
character of Archbishop Laud is often greatly mis-repre- 
sented. I feel, therefore, that I cannot do better than 
give the following short summary of his life, which I 
have extracted from a publication by S.P.C.K* 

"Born A.D. 1573, and consecrated Archbishop of 
Canterbury a.d. 1633. He commenced his archiepis- 
copal labours by reforming the Church itself, and for 
this purpose, early in 1634, undertook a metropolitical 
visitation of his province. His first care was to secure 
the sanctity of the Holy Table, which, in many Parish 
Churches, was then placed in the middle of the nave, 
and treated with peculiar irreverence.* Supported by the 
King, he insisted on the due reparation of the fabric, and 
on the removal of the Holy Table to the east wall of 
the choir. This latter measure was so obnoxious to the 
Puritans of Gloucester that they raised a cry of *No 
Popery ! ' and a clamour ensued not dissimilar from 
the riots of St. George's in the East in our own day. 
Laud persevered however in his resolution, and before 
the end of the year had crushed out opposition. 

"Among other reforms were the restoration of Catholic 
usage in the administration of the Sacrament, and the 

* See various petitions to the " Long Parliament," endorsed by Sir 
Edward Dering, pages 45 — 49. 

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no firtfmptton of t^t hitmox of t^t C^uxc^. 

due ordering and furnishing of Cathedral Churches, while 
he exacted from his clergy at closer attention to their 
duties. Whatever he did was, not unnaturally, mis- 
interpreted by the political party whom he had so 
persistently opposed ; so that louder than ever rose the out- 
cry against his Romish practices and propensities. The 
present age, no longer blinded by fanatical prejudice,* may, 
however, acknowledge that it was by Laud's perseverance 
and intelligent zeal that a higher standard of reverence 
was established in the ceremonies and observances of 
the Church, and that her sanctuaries were rescued from 
slovenliness. It seemed, however, to an excited people, 
among whom the old hatred of Rome had been 
strengthened by the progress of events abroad, that 
Laud and the High Church party, of whom he was the 
acknowledged leader, were bent upon the introduction 
of the ceremonies and doctrines of the Roman Church. 
They could not understand Laud's desire to retain and 
conserve what was Catholic, in contradistinction to that 
which was exclusively Roman. Knowing what their fore- 
fathers had suffered, and what the continental Protestants 
were at that moment suffering, we can pardon their 
indignation while we regret their ignorance. To them 
nothing seemed more plain than that he wished to bring 
England once more under the supremacy of Rome. It 
is needless to say that Rome, had few more steadfast 
opponents than the calumniated Bishop. 

* I am afraid we must except a Society, mis-named the " Church 

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idetlmptton ot tt^t inUtiox ot tt)t €l^nxc^. iix 

" His resolve was to raise the Church of England to 
what he conceived to be its real position as a branch; 
though a reformed branch, of the great Catholic Church 
throughout the whole world, protesting alike against the 
innovations of Rome and the innovations of Calvin, and 
basing its doctrines and usages on those of the Christian 
communion in the centuries which preceded the Council 
of Nicsea. Union with the great body of Catholicism, 
indeed, he regarded as a work which only time could 
bring about, but for which he could prepare the Church 
of England by raising it to a higher standard of Catholic 
feeling and Catholic practice. The great obstacle in his 
way was the Puritanism of a large proportion of the 
English people, and on Puritanism he made war without 
mercy. His refusal of a Cardinal's hat, offered to him by 
Rome, is a sufficient proof of his firm attachment to the 
Anglican Church." 

In the lower part of the window Laud is represented 
as in the act of consecrating the Church of St. Catherine 
Cree in the City. He wore the cope, and used an 
elaborate »ritual, which greatly stirred up the wrath of 
the puritanical party. 

"In 1640 the 'Long Parliament' commenced its famous 
sittings. Laud was denounced as a traitor. He was 
immediately taken into custody by Maxwell, Gentleman 
Usher of the Black Rod, but allowed to return to 
Lambeth to fetch the papers necessary for his defence. 
He attended evening prayers in his new chapel, and 
afterwards prepared to enter his barge. On leaving his 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

112 fietlmptton ot tl)e tnttviox ot tl^t C^nxcii. 

door, hundreds of his poor neighbours, who had often 
tasted of his bounty, surrounded him, and sent up their 
prayers to Heaven for his safe and speedy return to 
Lambeth. His friends thought that he might escape 
with loss of his Archbishopric, and banishment from 
Court. But in the Commons the wrath of his adversaries 
knew no abatement ; and throughout the country he was 
pursued by the increasing fury of popular calumny. 
Ballads and libels, equally false and scurrilous, were 
directed against his person, his office, his character, and 
his conduct. On the 26th of February^ 1641, the articles 
of impeachment were brought up from the Commons to 
the Lords ; and thereupon a vote was passed ordering 
his removal to the Tower. He was summoned to attend 
the House ; and the articles were read to him while 
standing at the bar. They were fourteen in number, 
and may be found in full, with Laud's answers to them, 
in his * History of his Troubles and Trial.* The charge 
that most deeply wounded him was his alleged falseness 
to his Church. That he, the defender of the Church of 
England against Rome, the advocate of its doctrines, the 
champion of its catholicity, should be accused of favouring 
Romanism, * troubled him exceedingly.' 

" On the 1st of March Laud was transferred to the Tower, 
where he lay with the shadow of death upon him for 
several months. He had a sad forewarning of his own 
fate in the trial and execution of his friend, the Earl of 
Strafford. As the great champion of absolute rule passed 
on his way to the scaffold, the Archbishop appeared at 

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Bmviption ot ti&e intttiox ot t\)t €'bntc% 113 

the window of his lodgings to bid him a last farewell. 
'The Earl, bowing himself to the ground, exclaimed, 
* My lord, your prayers and your blessing.* Laud lifted 
up his hands, uttered his parting benediction, and then 
overcome, not by weakness of spirit, but by anguish of 
mind, fell back into a swoon. Strafford went on his way 
to death with the words, * Farewell, my lord ! May God 
protect your innocency ! ' The trial began on March 
I2th, 1644. It lasted for five months, and Laud was 
heard twenty days in his own defence. To the charge 
that he had endeavoured to reconcile the Churches of 
England and Rome, he retorted, ' I have converted 
several from Popery ; I have taken an oath against it ; 
I have written a book against it ; I have held a contro- 
versy against it ; I have been twice offered a cardinal's 
hat, and refused it.' 

*'0n the 13th, the House, without hearing the Arch- 
bishop's Counsel, voted him guilty of high treason. The 
only favour the aged prelate could obtain was that he 
should be beheaded instead of dying on the gibbet. 
Neither his years, nor his many virtues, nor his sacred 
office, could extort further concessions from the stern 
vengeance of his enemies. 

" On the morning of the loth, the fatal day. Laud rose 
early, and spent some time at his devotions. With a firm 
step and a cheerful countenance he walked to the scaffold, 
making his way as best he could through the throng of 
people that encumbered it. Then, falling on his knees, he 
uttered a beautiful prayer, of which I give a short extract : — 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

114 Btiicviption ot ti^t Interior of the Cf^mc^. 

" * O eternal God and merciful Father, look down upon 
me in mercy ; in the riches and fulness of all Thy mercies, 
look down upon me : but not till Thou hast nailed my 
sins to the Cross of Christ, not till Thou hast bathed me 
in the blood of Christ, not till I have hid myself in the 
wounds of Christ, that so the punishment due unto my 
sins may pass over me. And since Thou art pleased to 
try me to the utmost, I humbly beseech Thee, give me 
now, in this great instant, full patience, proportionable 
comfort, and a heart ready to die for Thine honour, the 
King's happiness, and the Church's preservation/ 

" After concluding this prayer, and handing the paper to 
the chaplain, Mr. Sterne, he advanced towards the block; 
but, before he could prepare himself, was compelled to 
listen to some unseemly questions from one. Sir John 
Clothworthy, an Irish Presbyterian. Turning to the 
executioner, he put some money into his hand, saying, 
* Honest friend, God forgive thee, as I do. Do thine 
office upon me with mercy.' Sinking again upon his 
knees, he ejaculated, * I am coming, O Lord, as quickly 
as I can. I know, I must pass through death, before I 
can come to see Thee. But it is only the mere shadow 
of death ; a little darkness upon nature. Thou, by Thy 
merits has broken through the jaws of death. The Lord 
receive my soul, and have mercy upon me, and bless this 
kingdom with peace and plenty, and with brotherly love 
and charity, that there may not be this effusion of Christian 
blood among them : for Jesus Christ's sake, if it be Thy 
will.' Having laid his head upon the block, he gave a 

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Sticviption ot t^t interior ot tl^t Cl^ntcf). 115 

few moments to silent prayer, and then, stretching out 
his hand, exclaimed, * Lord, receive my soul.' It was 
the signal on which he had agreed with the executioner. 
The axe fell, and at one blow severed the head from the 
body, terminating the troubled career of Laud, Archbishop 
of Canterbury." 

The following inscription beneath the great west window 
will be read with interest, and will at once explain the 
the motive for the insertion of this further example of Mr. 
Kempe's artistic work. 

" To the glory of God, and in the reverence of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, and St. Eanswythe, and in honour 
of the most illustrious William Harvey, born in the town 
of Folkestone, in the year of grace MDLXXVIII., who 
in the reign of King Charles I., of blessed memory, 
greatly advanced the Science of Medicine, they of the 
same profession inheriting his labours, in gratitude have 
caused this window to be made. A.D. MDCCCLXXIV." 

It was in 1859 ^^^^ I ^^st wrote a letter to the Folke- 
stone Chronicle, calling attention to the fact that whilst 
Folkestone claimed to be the birthplace of Harvey, 
nothing had been done to commemorate the fact, and I 
suggested that the large west window of the Church 
should be filled with a suitable subject to the memory of 
one to whom the medical profession in particular, and the 
whole human family, owed a deep debt of gratitude. The 

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1x6 Setloriptton ot ti)e Intmor of (^t Ci^nvt^. 

matter was not at once taken up, but in 1871 a meeting 
was called at the Town Hall for the purpose of considering 
the question of a Memorial to Harvey. A Statue was 
decided upon, and has since been erected to his memory 
on the Lees. But the idea of a memorial window was 
also favoured by many persons, and was not therefore 
allowed to sleep. With the assistance of a number of 
scribes, 15,000 letters were despatched to the members 
of the medical profession in England, in which both 
proposals were mentioned. In every letter a stamped 
envelope was enclosed, re-addressed to "'fhe Vicar, 
Folkestone." The postage stamps thus used, cost exactly 
3^125. The result of these applications was a net sum, 
after paying all expenses, of 3^750. 

With this amount it was found possible to take out the 
very plain four-light window, and introduce the present 
beautiful window with elaborate tracery, designed by Mr. 
S. S. Stallwood. The painted glass was entrusted to Mr. 
Kempe. A wish, expressed by the parishioners at a meeting 
in the vestry, for deeper colouring, led to the window being 
darker than it otherwise would have been. The subject 
chosen is the Tree of Life, the boughs, foliage, and fruits of 
which, find their way into all parts of the window with its 
rich tracery. In the lower part of the central panel, the 
Evangelist St. John is seated, writing in a book, as directed, 
and the Angel of the Apocalypse is pointing him to the 
Tree of Life, on which is our Crucified Lord. Angels 
are receiving the precious blood in chalices. " The life 
of the flesh is in the blood." (Lev, xvii, ii,) This was, 

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9ticxiftion ot ti^t Intmor ot ti)e Ci^urcb. 117 

in a physical sense, Harvey's great discovery. The wide- 
spreading branches of the Tree of Life include four 
tairacles of healing — one Old Testament miracle, two 
Gospel miracles, and one Apostolic miracle. Our Lord's 
miracles are represented in the upper portion, taking in two 
panels on either side of the centre light. On the left-hand side 
is the pool of Bethesda, and our Lord restoring the poor 
man who had waited so long and patiently for the 
troubling of the water. On the right-hand side of the 
central light, the Lord Jesus, on His way to heal the 
nobleman's son, has turned to speak a word of com- 
mendation to the woman who has touched the hem of 
His garment. The Old Testament miracle is that of the 
Brazen Serpent, set up in the midst of the dying Israelites 
whose blood had been poisoned by the bites of the fiery 
serpents. It is depicted on the left side of the lower 
portion. On the right is the lame man, healed by St. 
Peter and St. John at the beautiful gate of the Temple. 

^1)e ^pantrrrls antr Ifloof of tf)e iBtabe. 

It only remains to add a few words explanatory of this 
last and all but finishing touch to the Church's complete 
adornment. Holy lessons surround us on all sides, and 
have met us at every turn; and now we may lift up our 
hearts unto the Lord in praise and thanksgiving. An 
upward glance of the eye at the spandrels of the arches 
and the roof of the nave, appropriately recalls thq 
Church's grand acclaim of praise. 

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ii8 StUcviptioix ot t^t fntfrtor ot t^t Cf^urri^. 

The Te Deum finds its illustration overhead. 

" We praise Thee, O God, we acknowledge Thee to be the Lord. 
All the earth doth worship Thee, the Father everlasting " 

Here are two angels, besides those painted in the roof; 

"To Thee all angels cry aloud, the heavens and all the 
powers therein." 

At the other end, next the tower, a cherub and a seraph 
are depicted, each carrying a scroll on which the ter- 
sanctus is inscribed, — for 

" To Thee, Cherubim and Seraphim continually do cry, * Holy, 
Holy, Holy,' Lord God of Sabaoth." 

Next to them, on either side, are two apostles. St. Peter 
and St. James on the one side, St. John and St. Jude on 
the other ; for so the sacred Hymn proceeds — 

''The glorious company of the Apostles praise Thee." 

Then come "the goodly fellowship of the prophets," 
Isaiah and Jeremiah, David and Daniel ; and finally, the 
noble army of Martyrs, SS. Stephen and Alban, and SS. 
Agnes and Catherine. 

The artist has suggested that the picture of the 
Annunciation might be removed to the chancel side of 
the tower, and the great arch be crowned with a picture 

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fietlcrtptton ot tt^t fntmor ot tf)e Cf^ntc^. 119 

of our Lord in Glory, seated on His throne, surrounded 
by His holy angels, with the rainbow round about and 
the four living creatures, thus further illustrating another 
Grand Strophe in the Te Deum — 

"Thou art the King of Glory, O Christ I " 

Ef^t jTestal aitar jFumtal. 

This magnificent work of art, which only appears in 
its proper place on the great Festivals of the Church, 
must not be passed over in silence. For beauty of design 
and skilful execution, it is probably unique in this country. 
In perfect harmony with its surroundings in the Sanctuary, 
it portrays the heavenly Jerusalem, as described in the 
fifth chapter of the Revelation. " Lo, in the midst of 
the throne, and of the four living creatures, stood a Lamb, 
as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, 
which are the seven spirits of God." And then, in the 
twenty-second chapter we are told of " a pure river of 
water of Hfe, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the 
throne of God and of the Lamb." This is exquisitely 
depicted, as also is the " Tree of life on either side of the 
river, which bare twelve manner of fruits," the leaves of 
which were " for the healing of the nations." These are 
wrought in gold and silver threads and coloured silks. And 
then there are the " walls of the city " and the " twelve 
gates with the twelve angels," and the twelve foundations 
on which are " the names of the twelve apostles of the 
Lamb." And even the " twelve precious stones" named 
in the twenty-first chapter are wrought by the skilful 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

I20 9e€rrtptton (if t^t tnUriot ot ti)r (S^urri^. 

hands of the seven ladies to whom the Church owes this 
most beautiful gift. The words running down the scroll- 
work on either side are singularly appropriate : ** Worthy 
is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, 
and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and 

Before we conclude our survey, we ought to ascend the 
Tower by the ancient winding stairs, and look at the fine 
peal of Bells. The Tower was restored in 1879, ^"^ ^ 
new peal was substituted for the peal of eight bells in- 
troduced just a century before. Some of the old bells 
had cracked, and no longer gave forth the "joyful sound " 
upon which, in their inscriptions, ihey prided themselves. 
The first, or treble bell bore the inscription in raised 
letters — 

" Although I am both light and small 


The second declared, — 


That though I am little yet I am good." 

The fourth had inscribed upon it, — 

"Our voices shall with joyful sound 
Mark hills and valleys echo round." 

The fifth,— 

** While thus we join in cheerful sound, 
May love and loyalty abound." 

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Sftlcrtptton of tl)e fnteruir ol t^t C^nt^. 121 

The third and sixth bells had been replaced by others 
without any inscription. On the seventh was, — 

"In wedlock's bands all ye who join, 
With hands your hearts unite; 
so shall our tuneful tongues combine 


The eighth had merely the names of the Vicar and 

The new bells were consecrated by the late Bishop of 
Dover, and as each bell was named by the Bishop, it 
struck three notes. The inscriptions on the new peal 
seem to indicate a higher sense of the purpose for which 
bells should be used, than that which prevailed in the 
previous century. 

The New Bells. 

1. "Glory be to God on high." 

2. "And in earth peace and goodwill to men." 

3. "We praise Thee." 

4. "We bless Thee." 

5. "We worship Thee." > 

6. "We glorify Thee." 

7. "We give thanks unto Thee." 

The eighth, or Passing Bell, whose solemn tolling calls 
us, from time to time, to think of a departing or departed 
soul, appropriately, by its inscription, invites us to 
supplicate the Divine mercy — 

"O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the 
world, have mercy upon us." 

Digitized by 


122 9rt;mptton ot tl^e tnttmv ot ti^t Ci^urcf). 

And now, with thoughts raised to higher and better 
things, we may leave the sacred edifice, and return to the 
absorbing duties and interests of the outer world. The 
whole panorama of Divine truth has spread itself out, 
literally, before our eyes, and we can hardly fail to realize 
still more deeply the fitness of the words on the angelic 
scroll which first attracted our notice. We began our 
survey of this richly-adorned Church with prayer for 
ourselves, for those who minister, and those who worship 
within its sacred walls. Ere we leave, let us lift up our 
hearts in praise and thanksgiving to Him Who, 

" When the years had wrought their changes 

He, our own unchanging God, 
Thought on this His Habitation, 

Look'd on His decay'd abode ; 
Heard our prayers, and help'd our counsels, 

Bless'd the silver and the gold, 
Till once more His House is standing 

Firm and stately as of old.'' 

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St. Eanswythe's Nunnery and the Church of St. Peter, 

built by Eadbald ... ... ... ... 630 

Ditto ditto destroyed by the Danes fcirj 830 

Nunnery and Church rebuilt by Athelstan ... ... 927 

The above destroyed by Earl Godwin ...^ ... ... 1050 

First Norman Church, founded by Nigel de Muneville ... 1095 

Present Parish Church (SS. Mary and Eanswythe), founded 
by William D'Albrencis, and Monks removed to New 

Priory ... . • ... ... ... ... 1138 

Parish Church burned by the French ••• ... ... 1216 

Present Chancel rebuilt ... ... ••. ... Mr J 1217 

Priory rebuilt by John de Segrave and Lord Clinton ... 1240 

Ditto suppressed by Henry V. ... ••• ... 1413 

Finally suppressed (the Prior resigning) ..• ... ... 1535 

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124 Cabb. 


Nave of Church blown down ... ... ... ... 1705 

Rebuilt, in bam-like fashion, and shortened by one arch ... 1706 

First Restoration. Arch restored and north aisle built ... 1856 

St. Peter's Church (again erected) ... ... ... 1862 

Second Restoration of Parish Church (chancel and aisles) ... 1869 

Third ditto ditto (new west end, vestry, porch, &c.) 1872 

Fourth Enlargement (new south aisle of nave) ... ... 1874 

St. Eanswythe's Mission House re-founded and stored with 

Sisters of St. John Baptist, Clewer ... ... ... 1875 

Sanctuary of Parish Church lined with alabaster arcading 

containing mosaics of the Apostles ... ... ..i 1885 

Discovery of Reliquary of St. Eanswythe on St. Alban*s Day 1885 

f Decoration of the interior of Parish Church ... 1886 to 1892 

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IList obtained from Lambeth Library and other sourcesJ] 








EDMUND [Chantry Priest] 







. 1524 



. 1601 


. 1605 



. 1631 


. I638 



. 1662 



. 1666 



. 1669 



. 1689 



. 1691 



. 1699. 


. 1753 



. 1772 



. 1813 



.. 1815 



.. 1818 



.. 1851: 


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QSrin$ to tfjt <s:ffntcff^ 

329tntrotog : 



Three East Windows ... C. E. Kempe E.Harlowe.Esq. H. & M. Butcher. 

Vesica Window Clayton & Bell Rev. E. Sladen E. H. M. Sladen. 

Laura Potts. 

A bequest ... Sophia Penny. 

[North Side] 

The Nativity 

... Taylor & 

The Epiphany ... 


[South Side] 

The Annunciation 


The Purification... 


Mrs. Sparks ... Flora Amelia Sparks. 

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&iit^ to tbe Cf^ntci). 




St. Alban, St Agnes, 
St. Faith 


) ^ T. ,, ^, T .^ (The Childrer 

}c.E.Kempe Mrs.Jeffery [ ^^^^^ 

jThe Children of John 

East Window do. 

St. Gabriel & St. Elizabeth do. 

St. Anne do. 

By subscription To the Glory of God. 
Mr. Dauglish do. 

By subscription do. 


f Sir C. & Lady ) 
The Flight into Egypt ... Mayer & Co. j f Constance Wodehouse 

The Transfiguration ... do. Mrs. Aspinall ... Thankofifering. 

St. Eanswythe C. E. Kempe Miss Hertslet ... M. S. Hertslet. 

St Gregory 
St Augustine 


Baptism of our Lord 


.. C. E. Kempe The Misses Phibbs To the Glory of God. 
do. do. da 

do. do. do. 




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6tfU to tbe Cburci). 



The Harvey Window ... C. E. Kempe 


Medical Men of 




The Fall of Man do. The Misses Toker Eliza Toker. 

The Expulsion from Paradise do. Her Children ... Susa^;^ Penfold. 

Theodore.Ethelred,Anselm Hemming Sir E.W.Watkin Richard Hart. 
Thomas & Becket& Laud do. Henry Norris. Esq. Eleanor Norris. 

The St John Window 
Baptismal Window 
Confirmation Window 
Communion Window 
Children's Wmdow 


.. C. E. Kempe 

Hemming The Baptized ... A Thankoifering; 

do. The Confirmed dow 

.. C. E. Kempe The Communicants do. 

do. The Children's Service do. 


The Matthew Window ... Heaton, Butler, Some Visitors ... The Vicar's Work in 
& Co. Folkestone. 

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6tft£f to a^t €fiVLvci^. 


^ictitress : 



St. Eanswythe ministering 1^^, »^, ,„,^, ,^, 

, ' FA. Oake A. Oake ... To the Glgry of God. 

to the Poor • > 

Eight Angels over the) 
Choir Stalls ) ' 

U' vv 

.Mrs. Dawson . 


Mr. Booker 

. 2 

Mrs. Coutts 

. I 

To the 

i ' 

General Hales . 

. I 

Glory of God. 

Mrs. Layton 


The Churchwardens i 


Annunciation C. E. Kempe Subscribers To the Glory of God. 

St.Augustmepreaching| ^ ^.^^ ^^ ^^,^ 

before Ethelbert and y Hemming Rev. A. Wilkin i ,, 

^ ^ I i House. 

Bertha / 

(The Misses Ash- 

r Thankoffering. 

St. Augustine and the) 

British Bishops .../ ' I bridge 

Angels over the N.W. door do. Mrs. Merriman T. H. M. 

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6tfU to t|f (Einti^. 

Stations of ti)e dttofifi. 



Jesus is Condemned 


Jesus receives His Cross 


Jesus Falls 


Simon of Cyrene helps 

Jesus to carry the 





Jesus consoles the Women ) 
of Jerusalem ) 

Jesus is stripped of His ) 
Garments | 

Jesus is nailed to the Cross 

Jesus dies upon the Cross 

Jesus is taken down from ) 
the Cross ) 

Jesus is laid in the Tomb 






Rev. A. Wilkin John Wilkin. 
H. Norris, Esq. H. J. Norris. 
Mrs. Hammond H. H. Hammond. 

Rev. A.Wilkin Sarah A. Wilkin. 

M.R. &H.B.R. A Thankoffering. 

H. A. Hunt Eliza Hunt. 

Rev. A. Wilkin Elizabeth Dolman. 

H. A. Hunt Henry A. Hunt. 

(Members ofl . „ ,, , , 
i »- ^ M. h A. E. Harland. 
( the Guild ) 

Miss A R. Bowen C. E. Bowen. 

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6tfU to ti)e C||ttr4|. 


Mosaics : 


Angels Censing 

St. Peter 

St. Andrew 

St. Thomas 

St. John 

St. Philip 

St. James the Less 

St. Jude 

St. Bartholomew 

St. James , 

St. Simon 

St. Matthias 

St. Matthew 


Capello Miss Cooper ... F. C. Fitzgerald, 

do. Miss. E. Wilson R. M. Wilson & others, 

do. Mrs.HodgkinsonW. S. Hodgkinson. 

do. Mrs. Melvill ... James Cosmo MelvUL 

do. Mrs. Cannon ... R. Cannon. 
(Henry Arthur) 








E. W. James ... do. 

Miss Peel ... W. J. PeeL 

( The Guild of St. ) 

1 Eanswythe j A Thankoffering. 

Mrs, Dawson ... W. M. Dawson. 

A. E. Harland 

( A Thankoffering for the 

Daily Eucharist. 

Miss Penny ... S. E. Penny. 

(The Misses) ^^ , ^ , 

I Lo d I ^^^^®^ ^' Lowder. 

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132 6tft« to tl)t €\imti). 

®ti)er ®ift0 : 


Reredos Mr. Christian Mrs. Carter ... A Thankoffering. 

Alabaster Altar Rails ... S. S. Stallwood Mrs. Sturt ... C. Napier Sturt. 

Large Brass Lectern ... Jones & Willis Colonel Nicoll... A Thankoffering. 

Carved Oak Faldstool ... W. E. Herbert Subscribers ... A Gift to God's House. 

Small Brass Lectern and ) „ ^ , ( The children of ) „, 

h F.Newman. \^, ,, ^ Eleanor Utterton. 

Lamp J (Mrs. Utterton ) 

Brazen Gates (West) ... do. Amother&daughter A Thankoffering. 

Do. (East) ... do. Rev. A. Wilkin do. 

Oak Screen of Ladyej g. S. Stallwood Miss Philips ... Miss Philips. 
Chapel I 

Altar of Ladye Chapel ... Mr. Tattersall Mr. Tattersall... Thankoffering. 

Rood Beam and Cross ... F. Newman Subscribers ... To the Glory of God. 

Festal Altar Frontal. Worked by Miss Hunt, Mrs. Gull, Lady Glasgow, Miss 
M. Merriman, Miss Crookes, Miss Laine, and the late Miss Harland. Presented 
to the Church by Miss Hunt. 

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^i$t tft Bnt^ctihev^^ 

The Mayor of Folkestone (Stephen Penfold, Esq.) 

The Bishop of Bath and Wells 

Miss Hopkins ... 

Mrs. F. Cohen ... 

The Misses K. and M. Ashbridge 

H. Goschen, Esq. 

Mrs. Leggatt 

Mr. H. G. Birch... 

Mrs. Jaques 

Mrs. Bass 

Mrs. Merriman ... 

John E. Freeman, Esq. ... 

Miss Kershaw ... 

Rev. P. W. Loosemore ... 

Rev. T. A. Carr... 

Lister Beck, Esq. 

R. Hovenden, Esq. 

Miss Burnett 

Mr. W. Dunk ... 

T. Wells, Esq. ... 

Miss Parker (Manor Road) 

Mrs. J. Pledge ... 

Miss Lawford ... 


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Hit of i^nhitxibtxi. 


Richard Foster, Esq. 

Murray S. Richardson, Esq. 

H. B. Bradley, Esq. 

Miss Keen 

G. J. Brown, Esq. 

Mrs. Thornton ... 

Mrs. Coutts (Stonehouse)... 

Rev. Canon Andrews 

Miss Jessie Reeve 

Miss Emma Herzog 

Mrs. Hammond... 

Mrs. Hewett 

Rev. F. G. Guy ... 

Captain Campbell 

Miss Hunt 

Henry Lewis, Esq., M.D..... 

S. S. Stall wood, Esq. 

J. C. Lewis Coward, Esq. (Recorder of Folkestone) 

J. Parnell, Esq. ... 

Miss Longe 

Mrs. J. W. Bliss... 

Captain Potts ... 

Lady D'Aguilar ... 

Miss Woodward (Manor Road) 

Lady Hay Currie 

E. W. James, Esq. 

The Dowager Lady Barrow 

Mrs. Harrison ... 

Mrs. Eley Sykes... 

Miss Woodward (L'pool) ... 

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Mrs. Dawson 

D. T. Woodward, Esq. ... 

R. B. Waind, Esq. 

W. H. Bailee, Esq. 

Mrs. Aspinall 

Mrs. Gull 

Miss Nedham ... 

The Rev. Canon Jeffreys ... 

Mrs. Newman ... 

Mr. A. Moat 

Miss Delmar 

Mrs. Melvill 

Miss Randolph ... 

Mrs. Miller Layton 

Henry Norris, Esq. 

Mrs. Ley-Bazeley 

J. Booker, Esq. ... 

The Rev. Canon Blore ... 

Mrs. Finney 

Miss Robertson Macdonald 

Miss Penfold 

J. Dunk, Esq., J.P. 

Follett Pennell, Esq. 

F. H. Williams, Esq. 

Miss Skene 

Miss E. O. Littler 

Harlowe Turner, Esq. 

C. E. Kempe, Esq. 

Mrs. Jackson 

General Hales ... 





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13^ Ittft of ij^tibi^mlberi^. 


Rev. W. C. Whitehead ... ... ... ... i 

Prebendary Salmon ... ... ... ... i 

Rev. J. B. Sedgwick ... ... ... ... i 

Rev. L. H. VVellesley-Wesley a 

Mrs. Pigott ... ... ... ... ... 2 

W. Lay ton Lowndes, Esq. ... ... ... i 

Miss Walker ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Rev. C. J. Parsons ... ..» ... ... 2 

R. Ritchie, Esq.... ... ... ... ... 2 

C. R. Hurst, Esq. ... ... ... ... i 

A. H. Gardner, Esq. ... ... ... ... i 

The Bishop of Argyle and the Isles... ... ... 4 

Miss Parr ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Mr. and Mrs. Carpenter ... ... ... ... 2 

Raymond Gosling, Esq. ... 

Miss Floyd 

P. J. King, Esq.... 

Miss Spear 

Rev. A. L. Jukes 

Mrs. Lloyd 

Rev. T. Howard Gill 

Sir W. Herschel, Bart. 

Miss M. Atkinson Watson 

Mrs. Streatfield ... 

F. P. Woodward, Esq. 

R. J. Fynmore, Esq. 

Hon. Eva Knatchbull Hugesen 

Mrs. Whiteway ... 

Mrs. Stone 

Rev. A. Wilkin ... 

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Lord Cranbrook... 


Rev. B. Smyth ... 

Messrs. Longbottom 

Rev. W. C. Veale 

Mrs. Andrews ... 

Rev. Arthur W. Bradnack. . . 

Mrs. Skeffington... 
Mrs. Wearne 

W. E. Skeffington, Esq. ... 
Horace B. Southwell, Esq. 

M. McLean, Esq. 
Rev. J. H. Carr 

Rev. R. T. Plummer 

James Niven, Esq. 
Miss Smith 

Mrs. D. Barclay Chapman... 

Robert Johnson, Esq. 

Warrington Hogg, Esq. ... 

F. J. Temple, Esq. 

Mrs. Bell 

Mrs. W. Hoare 


Miss H. G. Utterton 

Miss Elliston Wilson 

Mrs. Hulbert ... 

Mrs. Speedy 
Miss Iliflf 

Miss E. A. Iliff 

Mr. S. P. Ovenden 

Mrs. Wilks 

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Rev. R. E. Johnson 

Mr. T. L. Fearon 

G. F. Duncombe, Esq. 

Lewis Alford, Esq. 

A. M. Watkin, Esq. 

Mr. Braund 

Miss James 

J. C. Whitehorne, Esq. 

Mr. Wm. Pope ..• 

C J. Rawlings, Esq. 

Captain Crowe ... 

Miss Jeflfery 

R. L. Bowles, Esq., M.D.... 

Miss H. Croft ... 

The Rev. Canon Murray ... 

Miss A. Jeflfery ... 

John Brooke, Esq. 

Miss Denne 

The Rev. W. Legg 

The Ven. Archdeacon Emery 

John Hart, Esq. 

F. L. Humphreys, Esq. 

Mrs. McGarel ... 

Mrs. Goodiflf ... 

A. Oake, Esq. ... 

The Rev, Canon Wprlledge 

J. Sherwood, Esq. 

Dn Fitzgerald ... ... 

Mrs. Ashbridge ... 

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The Publishers believe that this Book is calculated to meet a very 
felt want. It has already been adopted at a great many Churches. 

No. 1. COMPLETE EDITION, MUSIC & WORDS.— The Music selected from 
English and Foreign sources, edited and arranged by the Rev. C. J. 
Ridsdale, B.A. Fourth Edition, Crown Svo, elegant cloth, 3/-, by post 3/4. 

No. 2. THE WORDS ONLY.— Paper cover, price 2d. Ninth Edition. 

No. 3. THE WORDS ONLY.— Limp blue cioth, price 4d.* Ninth Edition. 

No. 4. THE WORDS ONLY.-Cloth Boards, red edges, price 6d. Ninth Edition. 

No. 5. THE CAROLS ON LY.-Words, Id. Music Edition, 6d. Ninth Edition. 

A Discount of 25 per cent, will be allowed on first introduction. 

Testimony of BISHOPS to the value of the ** Children's 
Service Book.'' 

The Bishop of Chester (now Oxford) writes :—" Accept my best 
thanks for the Children's Service Book in its two forms, I will gladly 
make it known where I can." 

The Bishop of Winchester says:— "The Children's Service Book 
looks, at a hasty glance, very good and likely to be useful." 

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The Bishop of Bangor says :— "The short service and the collection 
of Hymns seem well fitted for the purpose for which they are designed— 
i.e.^ to call out the devotional feeling of children. While not too long, to 
weary them, they are full of true feeling." 

Bishop Wilkinson, Coadj. London, N. and E. Europe, says:— "The 
Children's Service Book is no stranger to me. I have recommended it 
already and shall continue to do so, being, so far as my experience goes, 
the best form of such service which has yet been published." 

The Bishop of Newcastle writes :— •• The Children's Service Book 
seems to me to be just what was needed to supply a great want." 

The Bishop of Chichester says:— "I have now perused the 
Children's Service Book, and I am satisfied that it is likely to be very 
generally useful. It is a good sign that Children's Services are far more 
general than in former days and that pains are taken to render them at 
once attractive and edifying. The Collects and Hymns appear to me to 
be well chosen." 

The Bishop of Argyle and the Isles writes:— "I think you have 
rendered a valuable service to the Church by the publication of your 
Children's Service Book. I have gone through it carefully, and while I 
find in it many new and beautiful hymns specially adapted to the young, 
I am glad to see that you have left out few, if any, of the old favourites." 

The Bishop of Shrewsbury writes:— "We have our own form of 
Children's Service ; but if we make a change, I do not know where we 
should find a compilation more suitable than the one which you have 

The Bishop of Bombay writes :—" Your Children's Service Book 
is already in use in Bombay Cathedral. I hope it will have the success it 

The Bishop of Calcutta says:— "Your Service Book for children 
seems likely to be useful. I shall be glad to draw attention to it whenever 
the subject comes before me." 

The Bishop of Nassau writes:— "Thank you very much indeed for 
the Children's Service Book. I knew it a little, before, but am so glad to 
have the tunes also. I fear that it may be almost too nice for our diocese, 
but I shall see what our clergy think." 

The Bishop of Iowa writes :— " I take great pleasure in adding my 
hearty commendations to the many you have deservedly received for your 
admirable Children's Service Book." 

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The Bishop of Tennessee writes:— •• I am sure that the Children's 
Service Book will meet a want that has been felt by most earnest and 
faithful parish priests. I should be glad to place it in any parish in my 
diocese. What a blessing it must be to the little ones to have a service 
such as you have provided for them in this book." 

The Bishop of Minnesota writes:— "The Children's Service Book 
seems, from its simplicity, devotion and loyalty to Christ and His Church 
well adapted for the Iambs of the flock." 

The Bishop of Indiana says :— " The Children's Service Book 
appears to be remarkably adapted for its purpose." 

The BiSHO? OF Honolulu writes: — "The Children's Service Book 
seems admirably adapted for the purposes for which it is compiled. I 
shall be very glad to see it introduced into my diocese." 

The Bishop of Pittsburg says : — " From the hasty glance I have 
given to the Children's Service Book I am much pleased with it, and 
think it must prove to be very helpful." 

The Bishop of Newfoundland writes : — " I should say that the 
Children's Service Book is admirably adapted for its purpose, and likely to 
prove helpful in promoting a real love for public worship amongst the 
little ones of the flock." 

The Bishop of Washington says: — "I am much pleased with the 
appearance of the Children's Service Book, and hope that you may be 
encouraged to bring it out in America." 

The Bishop of Massachusetts says :— •• The Children's Service 
Book is a most acceptable and attractive volume of hymns." 

The Bishop of Missouri says:— "I am most glad and grateful to 
have a copy of your Children's Service Book. I think it will help to 
supply a want, and is calculated to be most useful." 

The Bishop of Cape Town writes : — " The Children's Service Book 
seems to me, as far as I am able to judge, to be excellently adapted for 
its purpose." » 

The Bishop of Saskatchewan says : — •• I shall value the Children's 
Service Book highly, although I feel that it is rather too elaborate for 
general use in my diocese." 

The Bishop of Mississippi says : — " It appears to me admirably 
suited to its purpose, and I would so commend it to those who are 
entrusted with the special care of our Lord's little ones." 

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Testimony to the value of the ** Children's Service Book " 
by Clergy who have introduced it. 

The Rev, /. STORRS, Vicar of St Peter's, Eaton- Square, writes:— "li 
seems to me that you have supplied a real want in your book. It contains as 
many hymns which teach as well as pleasfe, and as few (if any) of that very senti- 
mental and subjective kind which I venturie to thiak are so -harmful for children. 
The Litanies also strike me as most excellent" - 

The Rev, S. E, CHETTO, just appointed by the Bishop of Rochester to the 
" Wilberforce Memorial Mission District,* writes:— "I am anxious that the 
work amongst children shall be a chief feature in the ^Jission, and I am hoping to 
be much helped in this direction by using your ' Children's Service Book.' We 
have used it at Holy Trinity, Gravesend (Rev. G. Barr, Vicar), since it was first 
published. I therefore know something of its great value,' and have^felt it my duty 
to recommend its use oh all sides. There is a charm about it which unresistingly 
attracts the children and their parents to the services. Now that I have a charge 
of my own I feel that I must use it, because I could not enjoy a ChiMren's Service 
without it."— May 31st, 1888. 

The Rev. A, GURNEY, Vicar of St, Bamabas\ Pimlico, writes:— ** The 
' Children's Service Book ' seems to be much ai>preciated." 

The RECTOR of GR AS ME RE writes:— '* A real treasury of sacred song 
and a mine of Catholic truth for our children. " 

The Rev, CECIL HOOK, Vicar of All Souls', L^eds, writes:— '* Yon are 
certainly to be congratulated on putting forth a book which supplies a want felt by 
many who have large Sunday Schools under their care." 

The Rev. GEO. BARR, Vicar of Holy Trinity, Gravesend, says:—''\om 
'Children's Service Book ' has proved, after two months' trial, a splendid success. 
The children like it much, and it has drawn many more of their elders than used 
to come. I think it would be a good thing for the Church if your book were 
introduced universally for Children's Services."' 

Thi Rev, W, TEMPLETON KING writes:— ** In my humble opinion 
your selection is far too good not to win the very first place after a fair comparison 
with all others. It possesses the inestimable merit of containing the choicest 
hymns, without the inferior ones." 

The Rev, CANON SHARP, Vicar of Horbury, Yorks, writes:—** We have 
already got your ' Children's Service Book,' and like it extremely. It meets a 
great want, and will, I am sure, be very extensively used." 

The Rev, J, A, PUGH, of Swindon Vicarage, writes:— ** I am so much 
pleased with the Musical Edition of the 'Children's Service Book,' that 1 intend 
to introduce it into my Church at an early date. Your Book has filled up a great 
gap which existed in our Children's Services." 

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The Rev. NEWTON PRICE, of Oxhey Vicarage, Watford, wHtes:—**VfQ 
were specially attrap^ by the thoughtful provision for the private devotions of 
the children, the hymn'book being a child's hand-book of devotion.'' 

The Rev. JAMES H. PR Y, of St. John* s Church, Boulogne-sur-mer, writes.'— 
** I like the 'Children's Service Book 'very much indeed ; and its introduction at 
St John's Church has greatly itacreased the general interest in the Children's 

The Rev. E. TQWNEND, • Pengance, ivrites :(^**We introduced the 

• Children's Service Book,' into^ur Church last January. It is an immense help 
to have a large number of good hymns to choose from. It is also a great gain 
having the Story of the Cross and of the Resurrection and the Carols all included 
in one hymn book. I thank you much for your work, and pray that it may 
become more and more well-knowll, and that Christ's little ones may learn from 
it to join better In the Church's worship here, and in the songs of Paradise 

The Rev. W. SCOTT, Exhall Vicarage, Coventry, writes :—** I have used 
your ' Children's Service Book ' since its first appearance, and like it very much. 
It has greatly increased the interest of our children in their Sunday School and in 
their Children's Service. We have never had so large an attendance at this time 
of the year as we have at present." 

The Rev. W. P. SHAW, Eastry Vicarage, Sandwich, writes :—**YovLt 

• Children's Service Book ' is admirable. It supplies a very felt want, and will do 
much to popularize Children's Services. The hymns are sjich as children love, 
the numerous Litanies are just what was wanted to mark the various seasons of 
the Church's year, and many of the tunes are most taking." 

The Rev. P. E. UTTERTON, Leatherhead Vicarage, writes:—*'! must 
write a word of true thanks to you for your very valuable gift to the Church and to 
her lambs in the ' Children's Service Book ' which you have published. I introduced 
it into my Church on Christmas Day last, and it has become a great power for 
good. The attendance at our Children's Services have increased in a very marked 
degree, and the children tell me that they enjoy the service in a way they never did 
before. You have supplied what was a real need in the Church, and I, among 
many others, am truly grateful to you." 

The Rev. THEODORE JOHNSON, Diocesan Inspector of Schools, South 
Norwood, writes: — *• I think the new 'Children's Service Book,' by Rev. M. 
Woodward, is the best book of the kind I have yet seen. I shall have great 
pleasure in recommending it for use in the Schools of the Diocese." 

•' The demand for a Service Book adapted to this end is a very real one— and Mr. 
Woodward, the editor of the above book, deserves the hearty gratitude of the 
Church for its production. We can recommend it as by far the best in existence 
of its kind, and thoroughly worth introducing in any Church where such a book is 
a desideratum." 

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The DIOCESAN INSPECTOR for Chester writes .— '• It seems just what 
^e want. I hope and expect it will be most successful I will certainly do what 
I can for it in the Schools of this Diocese." 

The Reu, F. AUCHMUTY^ Vicar of St, Bafnabas\ Horton-cum-Studley, 
OxoiKa vjrites :—'' \ am greatly pleased with the 'Children's Service Book.' It 
has been the means of making our Children's Service more popular than before, 
especially with the young men, and with the parents of the school children. It 
admirably supplies a want." 

The Rev, C, M, HESILRIGE, St, Andrew's Mission, Yeadon, Leeds, 
writes : — " I find it to meet all our wants. It is in favour with all in connection 
with the above Mission, and Ihe congregations generally have increased since its 
adoption at the Children's Service. It is very attractive to the children on account 
of the music to the hymns." • ' 

The Rev, F. J, P6WELL, M.A., Vicar of Knotty Ash, writes .•— •' I at once 
saw that it satisfied the need I had long fdt for a hymn book containing a short 
and appropriate service for children, ^he admirable selection o£ hymns, the 
number of metrical litanies and carols, combined with this fact to in'duce me to 
adopt it in my Sunday School, with the re^lt that our Children's Service is now 
most bright and hearty. May I cordially thank you for your useful labour 5n 
compiling the book, and assure you that I.shall lose no opportunity of recommending 
it to my clerical friends." 

The Rev, F. BALDWIN, Vicar of Skegness, Vtncolnskire, writes:— "V7e 
have found it to be just the thing we wanted. Since its introduction the children 
have shown much greater regularity and attention, and not only are the children 
themselves delighted with their own ' Service Book,' t)ut it is also a favourite with 
the parents and other adults who now regularly attend the Children[S Service." 

The Rev. H. FA WCETT, Vicar of St. Thonuv' s^ Beth^al Green, writes.— 
" Your • Children's Hymn Book' is by far the best I know. It supplies a great 
want, and adds materially to the life ^nd brightness^f our Children^ Services." 

The Rev. A. BURTON, Vicar of Sketchworth, dambs., writes ;— " Its direct 
and plain Catholic teaching, as well as its good selectiop of hymns and well adapted 
tunes, make it increasingly popular with teachers and taught." 

The Rev. E, B. TROLLOPE, Brigg, writes. -^'^Thtre has been a marked 
increase in the interest shown by our children in thfeir special service since the 
introduction of your Book. What particularly pleases me is the unusual amount 
of historical and doctrinal truth which the hymns teach. Our services have certainly 
been brighter and better attended since we have used your Book." 


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